Creative industries: Setting the research agenda (2009)

Creative Business & Entrepreneurship

| 16 September 2011
Page 2 of 6


Creative industries - research agenda: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6

1. UK DCMS model. This model derives from the impetus in the late 1990s in the United Kingdom to reposition the British economy as an economy driven by creativity and innovation in a globally competitive world. “Creative industries” are defined as those requiring creativity, skill and talent, with potential for wealth and job creation through the exploitation of their intellectual [property] (DCMS, 2001).

2. Symbolic texts model. This model is typical of the approach to the cultural industries arising from the critical-cultural studies tradition as it exists in (Western) Europe and especially the United Kingdom (Hesmondhalgh, 2007). This approach sees the “high” or “serious” arts as the province of the social and political establishment and therefore focuses attention instead on popular culture. The processes by which the culture of a society is formed and transmitted are portrayed in this model via the industrial production, dissemination and consumption of symbolic texts or messages, which are conveyed by means of various media such as film, broadcasting and the press.

3. Concentric circles model. This model is based on the proposition that it is the cultural value of cultural goods that gives these industries their most distinguishing characteristic. Thus the more pronounced the cultural content of a particular good or service, the stronger is the claim to inclusion of the industry producing it (Throsby, 2001). The model asserts that creative ideas originate in the core creative arts in the form of sound, text and image and that these ideas and influences diffuse outwards through a series of layers or ‘concentric circles’, with the proportion of cultural to commercial content decreasing as one moves further outwards from the centre. This model has been the basis for classifying the creative industries in Europe in the recent study prepared for the European Commission (KEA, 2006).

4. WIPO copyright model. This model is based on industries involved directly or indirectly in the creation, manufacture, production, broadcast and distribution of copyrighted works. The focus is on intellectual property as the embodiment of the creativity that has gone into the making of the goods and services included in the classification. A distinction is made between industries that actually produce the intellectual property and those that are necessary to convey the goods and services to the consumer. A further group of ‘partial’ copyright industries comprises those where intellectual property is only a minor part of their operation (UNCTAD, 2008).

1. UK DCMS model 2. Symbolic texts model 3. Concentric circles model 4. WIPO copyright model
Advertising
Architecture
Art & antiques market
Crafts
Design
Fashion
Film & video
Music
Performing arts
Publishing
Software
TV & radio
Video & computer
games
Core cultural industries
Advertising
Film
Internet
Music
Publishing
TV & radio
Video & computer
games

Peripheral cultural industries
Creative arts

Borderline cultural industries
Consumer electronics
Fashion
Software
Sport
Core creative arts
Literature
Music
Performing arts
Visual arts

Other core creative arts
Film
Museums & libraries

Wider cultural industries
Heritage services
Publishing
Sound recording
TV & radio
Video & computer
games

Related industries
Advertising
Architecture
Design
Fashion
Core copyright industries
Advertising
Collecting societies
Film & video
Music
Performing arts
Publishing
Software
TV & radio
Visual & graphic art

Interdependent copyright industries
Blank recording material
Consumer electronics
Musical instruments
Paper
Photocopiers, photographic equipment

Partial copyright industries
Architecture
Clothing footwear
Design
Fashion
Household goods
Toys

Fig 1. Classification systems for the creative industries (UNCTAD, 2008).


Creative industries - research agenda: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6