Burton Tremaine: Navigating around crazy, diversified, colliding pro-Nazi factions in Cleveland

Like Emily Hall Tremaine’s first and second husbands, Max von Romberg and Adolph B. Spreckels, Jr., her third husband Burton Tremaine, that she married in 1945, also was interfacing to some extent with the Nazi / anti-Nazi element in America. What was he doing, what was he around, what did he know, and what were his positions? Assuming one held an anti-Nazi position, how to navigate the rolling in of a wicked, new ideology into business management circles and the social set? Speak out like Emily and take that risk, work behind the scenes, or stay quiet and look the other way?

R.J. Preece (ADP)
Art Design Publicity at ADC | Emily Hall Tremaine / Collection | 13 June 2024 | Updated 28 June 2024
For an overview and listing of articles related to Emily Hall - von Romberg - Spreckels - Tremaine before World War II, see section I. Mystery, danger & misunderstandings: Emily Hall Tremaine in the 1930s on the Emily Hall Tremaine - Tremaine Collection compilations and documentation webpage.

In the Tremaine design and industry discourse, Cleveland always is mentioned in the abstract as Burton Tremaine came from there (and was later buried there in the family cemetery plot), and his father was a business force in the area. This becomes complicated taking into account when noting that ex-Nazi agent / curator / architect Philip Johnson also came from Cleveland society and was based in Ohio for a time with his pro-fascist and pro-Nazi positions and activity (and the later presumed "forgive and forget" interactions with the Tremaines after WWII), that General Electric (as well as Ford Motor Co. and General Motors in Detroit, and other corporations) have been slammed in history books for activity with Germany through 1933-45, and industrial management figure Charles Bedaux apparently had strong ties to Cleveland - Detroit industry— for starters, with his ties to the Duke and Duchess of Windsor. Plus, as in California, there were society figure interactions with Nazi Germany regime supporters, for reasons not yet known. Very quickly the glossy shine of coming from mythical industrial Cleveland starts to tarnish into a range of questions as the history of Cleveland in these contexts is revisited.

Cleveland and Detroit are known to have been hotbeds of pro-Nazi business activity with corporations having pre-existing German operations moving into the 1933-45 period. There also was a strong pro-Nazi movement in the more worker-oriented spheres as shown in Michael Cikraji’s book The Cleveland Nazis: 1933-45 and discussed on the Ohio v. the World podcast, in part with podcast host Bradley W. Hart, author of Hitler’s American friends.

In the Emily Hall Tremaine (1908-87) discourse, Burton Tremaine is a completely different case in the 1930s than her first two husbands, Max von Romberg (marriage 1928-38; Max died in a suspicious plane crash, presumed anti-Nazi) and Adolph B. Spreckels, Jr. (1939-45; separated in 1940), and takes us away from California to Cleveland, New York and Connecticut. Burton was a corporate / mid-sized businessman in the commercial and residential lighting area, to some extent influenced by his father, also named Burton Tremaine.

Regarding Tremaine, at the outset, it should be noted that while Burton’s father was a huge player in the General Electric lighting division, he was moving into his 80s by the 1940s and seemed often in Arizona after 1935 on his ranch, while Burton was about 40 years younger. Secondly, by the early 1930s, Burton was based in New York and working in Connecticut, with his first wife and two children in Cleveland. He moved to Connecticut working in Meriden later in the decade and married his second wife in 1938. He was mainly based in Madison, CT during their short marriage. So initially for both on the surface, they seem somewhat near pro-Nazi business forces in Cleveland (and Detroit) but to some extent distanced from it. Greater clarity regarding both positions is sorely needed.

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What sparked this inquiry is Burton and Emily Hall Tremaine’s post-WWII association with ex-Nazi agent / architect Philip Johnson, and that Johnson had Cleveland connections. (Little was put forward about Burton before he married Emily in 1945 in the 2001 biography on Emily as well, and also noting that Johnson was associated with so many different people after WWII. Emily married Burton in 1945 after Spreckels finally allowed her to divorce him, around the time of the Yalta Conference towards the end of WWII.)

When did Burton meet Philip, etc.— was it in Cleveland during Johnson’s fascist and pro-Nazi 1930s or earlier, and to what extent did they know each other? Instead of Cleveland, did they meet in New York with Burton’s company rolling out a Modernist line of sorts for Miller Company lighting, including designs by little-known Modernist Leroy Doane, started at least by 1932? Or maybe Burton or Emily met Philip when Johnson returned to the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York after World War II. And who was friendlier with Johnson, Emily or Burton? Primary sources are needed to provide clarity. I have seen no personal letters to Johnson in Emily’s papers.

In this regard, the name Rockefeller, also out of Cleveland, with critical accounts put forward and with MoMA connections, also enters the frame, in this murky post-WWII "forgive and forget", presumed high-end American mentality.

This compilation aims to put forth sources regarding different factions of pro-Nazi support criss-crossing Cleveland as a starting point for much needed clarity. It also contributes to the developing discourse on the Nazi / anti-Nazi battle in Cleveland - Detroit.

Charles Bedaux and Gerhard Alois Westrick

Others in the Cleveland set in the sphere around the Burtons were the likes of French-American Charles Bedaux, an industrial management entrepreneur with business ties— and knowledge of those businesses— including General Electric and two companies to some extent associated with Philip Johnson’s father, Homer Johnson. Charles Bedaux infamously took the Duke and Duchess of Windsor to meet Hitler in 1937, and attempted afterwards to bring them on a tour, including industrial factories, across America. This was blocked by unions threatening protests, concerned about Bedaux’s work concerning its impact on workers, presumably independent and not sparked by any intelligence tip, and extensively reported in the US news. Bedaux was captured in North Africa in 1944 and brought to America and Miami. While in detention, he "committed suicide" and his papers went missing, raising a great deal of questions. Additionally, General Electric was named in 1940 American newspapers associated with Gerhard Alois Westrick, "Hitler’s ambassador-off-the-record to U. S. businessmen", reported TIME.

But while General Electric as an entity has been slammed in history, even a chapter in a book "GE funds Hitler", to be clear, nothing directly implicates Burton or his father. But at the least, his father was around it. Who knows at this early juncture; maybe he was internally against the Germany ties dealing with this group of GE decision-makers.

At this early juncture, any direct contact between Bedaux and Westrick to the two Burton Tremaines, Philip Johnson, or his father is not yet known.

Mrs. Lawrence Lanier-Winslow, an American socialite

Further, out of Cleveland society is Mrs. Lawrence Lanier-Winslow, an American socialite and reportedly old friend of the Duchess of Windsor, Wallis Simpson, whom she met publicly in December 1940 in Miami with American and British intelligence watching the Dutchess very closely, especially in a later trip to Palm Beach. (Meanwhile in December 1940, Emily was embroiled in the "He’s a Nazi, no SHE is" divorce case with Adolph B. Spreckels, Jr. in California and occasionally Emily’s history juxtaposes Wallis’s on the same newspaper page.)

Like Emily, Mrs. Lanier-Winslow is reported to have hosted the touring Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Head of the German Red Cross, Queen Victoria’s grandson, and ally to Hitler and the Duke and Duchess of Windsor, during his trip across America earlier in March / April 1940. (The Duke of Saxe Coburg faced VERY disturbing allegations after WWII. See 90-second documentary introduction.) Mrs. Lawrence Lanier-Winslow’s positions are not yet known, and in theory, she could have been an informal spy to U. S. military intelligence, given her family associations with the U. S. foreign service.

At this early juncture, any direct contact between Mrs. Lanier-Winslow to the two Burton Tremaines, Philip Johnson, or his father is not yet known.

German Consul to Cleveland, Karl Kapp

In this regard, like the German consuls to Los Angeles and San Francisco impacting on Emily’s history, German Consul to Cleveland Karl Kapp, whose remit also included Detroit, becomes of relevance. The mayor of Cleveland seems to have no problem being seen with Karl Kapp at events and one assumes as shown below that Kapp interacted with American businessmen with interests in Germany.

At this early juncture, any direct contact between Karl Kapp to the two Burton Tremaines, Philip Johnson, or his father is not yet known.

Burton Tremaine, Miller Company, Ford Motor Co.

Lastly, Burton Tremaine’s Miller Company in Meriden may win a posthumous award for badly timed media / communications, certainly looking back in history, with the company’s announcement of a major business deal with the Ford Motor Company in the Detroit area in mid-July 1938. Those familiar with Henry Ford’s pro-Nazi past, I’m sure, are already groaning. About two weeks later, Henry Ford celebrated his 75th birthday publicly, and Hitler gave Henry Ford a medal, the Grand Cross of the German Eagle, via German Consul to Cleveland Karl Kapp in Detroit. (Apparently, Hitler had at one time a portrait of Henry Ford in his office. See link to Rachel Maddow in 1938 listings below.) This was reported across the US, sometimes with a photo of Ford receiving the medal. Did damage control follow at the Miller Company with the association? No. The following month in August 1938, the Miller Company produced a couple of advertisements in Meriden’s newspapers celebrating the Ford Motor Company deal. But note that Burton was in Europe on a six-week holiday starting about three weeks earlier.

Let’s hope this isn’t the tip of an iceberg, but the entire iceberg itself, and a one-time lapse in judgment— or that Burton was an informal spy of some kind among many.

At this early juncture, who enabled this deal from the Miller Company is not yet known. It also is not known who attended any VIP element regarding the event for Henry Ford and why, and who didn’t. With so many involved across the US, it was a deeply chilling and very dark day in American history.

A step forward

How can we get to the bottom of this? A full newspaper scan and via books on related topics are a good start. Then a range of declassified intelligence across the U. S. and Germany can provide clarity, noting we must consider historical persons innocent until proven guilty and maybe moreso, given greater difficulty in gathering facts with a specific Nazi / anti-Nazi eye. Further, we must consider the possibility of the informant / spying situation of the time, as uncontextualized sources are brought forward. Any statements within them should be considered a lead for further investigation and confirmation.

Lastly, we must note that at any moment as we have seen elsewhere, declassified intelligence may come forward at any moment, as noted in Beverly Hills spy by Ron Drabkin (2024). In this book, U. S. Naval Intelligence head of Southern California Ellis M. Zacharias, after months of FBI investigation of Frederick Rutland and ready to arrest, Zacharias intervened, stating essentially, "Stop! He works for us!"

My goal here is to simply get to the facts in these complicated, and sometimes hidden histories. I don’t necessarily disagree with the post-WWII "forgive and forget" approach. These histories in relation to today are another, wider discussion. Let’s get to the facts first as the abstract reference to "General Electric", the Philip Johnson Cleveland connection, and the celebrated Ford Motor Company deal raise legitimate questions.

This compilation is in development.

1932 - article - Burton and plane achievement

(8 October 1932). Makes transcontinental plane trip from Meriden [B. G. Tremaine] [with photo of Burton and his plane]. Meriden Daily Journal, p. 1. (Viewed 25 July 2023. N00005; V00073).

"B. G. Tremaine, Jr., manager of the New York office of the Miller company, is the first graduate of the flying school of the Meriden aircraft corporation to make a transcontinental flight and return at the controls of his own plane...

He began his flying education here in November 1930...

The Miller company executive flew from Meriden to the southwest partly as a pleasure trip, but combined it with business, as he and his family have large ranching interests in the vicinity of Mesa [Arizona]. His first landing was at Armonk, N. Y., where he picked up a passenger, David Swope, son of Gerard Swope, president of the General Electric company. Mr Swope is also a student of the Meriden Aircraft corporation, and acted as navigator on the long flight... From Armonk, they flew to Valley Stream, and then to Cleveland, where Mr. Tremaine’s family resides...

[Tremaine] has already made two business flights to Cleveland, and flights to Albany, Schenectady and Syracuse. He also uses the ship frequently for commuting between New York and Meriden..." (Excerpts from above.)

Philip Johnson

c. 1933-34+ - declassified FBI report, Philip Johnson

(c. 1933-34+). Declassified FBI report, Philip Johnson (multiple file numbers). (Viewed 4 December 2023.)

1934 - news brief - Burton may move to Meriden

(19 May 1934). Schwarz resigns as Miller Company general manager; his position as president to be filled at meeting next week; Board chairman, B. G. Tremaine, here; comes by plane to visit plant, and may take house in city. Meriden Record, pp. 1 & 2. (Viewed 23 July 2023. N00006).

"… Mr. Tremaine is a skilled airplane pilot… and commutes between New York and Cleveland…" (Excerpt from above.)

  • Contact area public library.

1934 - news brief – Burton becomes new head of Miller Co

(21 May 1934). B. G. Tremaine, Jr new head of the Miller Company. The Meriden Daily Journal (Wallingford Edition), p. 8, col. 5. (Viewed 23 July 2023. Google News. F01937).

1935 - news brief - Burton in plane accident in Meriden

(18 February 1935). Plane damaged in accident at local airport; B. G. Tremaine, Miller Co. head and asst. escape unhurt. Meriden Daily Journal, p. 1. (Viewed 25 July 2023. N00008).

Miller Co Ford Motor Co

1938 - spotlighted article - Miller Company deal with Ford Motor Co.

(22 July 1938). Miller Co. gets Ford Motor Co. lighting order; makes 8,657 Alzak Aluminum Reflectors for plant at Dearborn, Mich. Meriden Record (Connecticut), p. 1. (Viewed 13 June 2024. V00014).

  • Online - Google News.
  • What does it mean to have Ford Motor Co. as a client, given Henry Ford’s questionable activities—over years— put forth by Hart and Maddow below?

1938 - radio listing - context, Henry Ford 75th birthday

(30 July 1938). In the world of radio. Meriden Record, p. 9. (Viewed 14 June 2024. V00063).

"This morning; 11:30 WEAF—Henry Ford’s 75th Birthday Program. Salute by 9,000 children." (Excerpt from above.)

See below, it is reported that Burton married Sally Wylie on 1 August 1938.

Henry Ford Hitler medal

1938 - photo / caption - context: Henry Ford received medal from Hitler

Associated Press Wirephotos (Detroit, July 31). (1 August 1938). Caption: Germans decorate Henry Ford (photo above). The Hartford Courant, p. 3. (Viewed 14 June 2024. V00067).

"Henry Ford was decorated with the German Eagle for his industrial accomplishments. Karl Kapp, German consul at Cleveland, Ohio, is shown pinning the medal on Ford while Fritz Heiler, German consul at Detroit, shakes Ford’s hand. The presentation was made on Ford’s seventy-fifth birthday anniversary Saturday." (Excerpt in full from above.)

1938 - social mention - Burton and Sally to Europe

(15 August 1938). Personal paragraphs ["Mr. and Mrs. Burton G. Tremaine of 160 Liberty street, sailed last week on the Normandie for a six weeks’ trip abroad"]. Meriden Daily Journal, p. 2, col. 2. (Viewed 25 July 2023. N00003).

1938 - social mention - Burton and Sally marry

(16 August 1938). Weddings ["Tremaine-Wylie" "recent marriage… to Sally Wylie of New York and Madison… The ceremony was performed August 1... The couple sailed two days later on the Normandie for Europe, expecting to return about September 15. Mrs Tremaine is the former wife of Philip Wylie, well known writer. Mr. and Mrs. Tremaine are expected to occupy a house in North Madison…"]. Meriden Daily Journal, p. 3, col. 4. (Viewed 25 July 2023. N00004).

  • Online - Google News.
  • Given these wedding dates and travel, when did Burton become aware that Hitler gave Henry Ford a medal?

1938 - social news - Burton marries Sally

(16 August 1938). Weddings: Tremaine – Wylie [1 August 1938]. Meriden Record (Connecticut), p. 3, col. 1. (Viewed 21 July 2023. P03065).

"… Mr. and Mrs. Tremaine are expected to occupy a house in North Madison." (Excerpt from above.)

Miller Company Meriden

1938 - advertisement - Ford Motor Co. deal

Miller Company, Meriden, CT. (29 August 1938). Advertisement: "… Ford Motors turn to MILLER for lighting the great new plant at River Rouge; Alzak reflectors…" (photo above). Meriden Record, p. 6B. (Viewed 14 June 2024. V00065).

  • Offline - see worldcat.org for locations or contact area public library.
  • See 15 & 16 August news listings above; during this time, Burton was on holiday in Europe and potentially could have been unaware of this advertisement.

Miller Company Meriden

1938 - advertisement - Ford Motor Co. deal

Miller Company, Meriden, CT. (29 August 1938). Advertisement: "… Ford Motors turn to MILLER for lighting the great new plant at River Rouge; Alzak reflectors…" (photo above). The Meriden Daily Journal, presumably p. 13. (Viewed 14 June 2024. V00065).

  • Online - Google News.
  • See 15 & 16 August news listings above; during this time, Burton was on holiday in Europe and potentially could have been unaware of this advertisement.

Duke of Saxe Coburg and Gotha New York March 1940

Photo from Sabotage! (1942, see listing below). On 20 March 1940 with the US still neutral in WWII, Senator Ernest Lundeen speaking under the German Nazi flag at an event in the Waldorf-Astoria, New York, among German officials. The focus in Hart’s Hitler’s American friends (2018, see listing below) and Rachel Maddow’s Ultra podcast is Lundeen, right at the start of her podcast. However, the key person in the history of Burton and Emily Hall Tremaine is the Duke of Saxe Coburg and Gotha (third from the left) on his shocking American tour. He shortly afterwards arrived in Cleveland, with a small event reported to have stayed overnight at the home of Mrs. Lawrence Lanier-Winslow (see below), and later in Emily’s home in Montecito. Emily talked about it in her secret deposition (13:45+) during her crazy divorce attempt in 1940-41. Her hosting the Duke was a key counter-allegation by her second husband, Adolph B. Spreckels, Jr. Guest lists for the three events may be in British, German, and or US intelligence archives.

1940 - article - context: Duke of Saxe Coburg and Gotha in Cleveland

(23 March 1940). German duke here lauds Red Cross; says co-operation given in all countries. Cleveland Press, unknown page number. (Viewed 12 June 2024. P03276).

"… His Royal Highness, Karl Eduard, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, president of the German Red Cross, was a guest in Cleveland today.

The duke, a distinguished appearing man of 55… He conferred Monday with President Roosevelt in Washington…

This noon he was entertained at a luncheon for Cleveland Red Cross leaders and members of the consular corps at Hotel Cleveland by Karl Kapp, German consul-general here, and tonight will be guest at the home of Mrs. Lawrence Lanier Winslow, Nutwood Farms in Wickliffe." (Excerpts from above.)

  • Offline - Cleveland Public Library.
  • Note: A detailed consular report by Karl Kapp regarding the duke’s visit to Cleveland may be in the Political Archive in Berlin, possibly with guests lists. One was done, for example, by the German Consul to Los Angeles. Further, there may be reports in British and American intelligence archives.
  • Notice here the journalist / newspapers opts to not mention that the duke is an ally to Hitler. Other reporting went into this.

1940 - article - context: General Electric

(8 July 1940). War front: German tester. TIME magazine. (Viewed 14 June 2024. time.com. V00068).

"Ever since last April, a new and special type of German Ambassador has been making calls in the U. S. His name: Gerhardt Alois Westrick. His title: Commercial Counselor to the German Embassy. His job: Hitler’s ambassador-off-the-record to U. S. businessmen…

He built up a good law practice with Partner Westrick, representing foreign corporations in the Reich. Among their clients: Ford, General Electric Co. (of Germany), I. T. & T., Harris Forbes, and the semiofficial Hamburg-American Line. Most of the New York banking houses, which floated German bonds during the ‘205, used Albert and Westrick…

Underlying the Westrick olive branch are several assumptions. Hitler is assumed to be supreme in Europe, which will now become one continental economy…" (Excerpt from above).

  • Online - TIME magazine.
  • Given various stances, how does read this thinking of one’s father being so closely associated with General Electric?

1940 - spotlighted article mention - Johnson, Auhagen, Cleveland, New York

Thompson, Dorothy (New York Tribune). (23 October 1940). Dr. Auhagen [with mention of Philip Johnson]. Daily Boston Globe, p. 14. (Viewed 26 June 2024. S00641).

"... Dr. Friedrich Ernst Auhagen, who was picked up by Federal agents on the West Coast as he was about to embark for Japan... He and his organization, "The American Fellowship Forum", have conducted the most subtle and intelligent campaign to influence and direct American public opinion and American policy...

To this end it has organized branches in a number of cities. In April, according to its own literature, it was represented by branches in New York, Newark, Philadelphia, Springfield, Mass., Cleveland, Chicago, and La Salle, Ill. ... Dr. Auhagen’s leading braintrusters were Philip Johnson and Lawrence Dennis, both Harvard men and both brilliant...

The American Fellowship Forum has published irregularly a small magazine called ’Today’s Challenge’. So far as I know, only three issues appeared. All contained articles by Dr. Auhagen, Mr. Johnson and Mr. Dennis..." (Excerpt from above.)

  • Search worldcat.org for locations, or contact area public library.

1942 - book mentions - context: General Electric, ALCOA

Sayers, Michael & Kahn, Albert E. (1942). Sabotage! The secret war against America, pp. 58-9. Harper & Brothers. (Viewed 14 June 2024. V00070).

"… Magnesium is a vital war metal one-third lighter than aluminum… the Nazis held American annual production of magnesium down to 2,500 tons before 1940, while German production soared to several times that level…

By means of a similar agreement with ALCOA, American aluminum production was drastically restricted…

The same was true with tungsten carbide (Carboloy) which is a vital element is machine tool manufacture. According to the Department of Justice, an agreement between General Electric and the German Krupp trust gave the Nazis veto power over American production. Nazi Germany was producing twenty times as much tungsten carbide as America in 1940…" (Excerpts from above.)

1942 - social mention - Burton rents Meriden newspaper owner’s house

(1 October 1942). [Untitled social mention] [Burton rents Carter H. White’s house on Eaton Avenue]. Meriden Daily Journal, p. 12. (Viewed 25 July 2023. N00001).

  • Contact area public library.
  • Given the later divorce, perhaps Burton and Sally formally separated by this time.

1943 - news brief - Swope at event for Burton Tremaine’s father

(15 October 1943). Swope visits Tremaine [Burton’s father]; G. E. President honors associate on his 80th birthday. Cleveland Plain Dealer, p. 6. (Viewed 14 June 2024. V00016).

"Gerard Swope, president of the General Electric Co., was in Cleveland yesterday to attend the 80th birthday celebration of Burton G. Tremaine [Burton’s father], pioneer electric lamp manufacturer and with the late F. S. Terry, organizer of the National Electric Lamp Works at Nela Park.

The observance for Tremaine for more than 20 years a director of General Electric, was in the auditorium of the General Electric Institute at Nela Park.

After the ceremony Swope addressed Nela Park department heads." (Excerpt in full from above.)

1945 - Emily divorces Adolph

See the texts

After Emily Hall Tremaine (then Spreckels) dismissed the divorce case in 1941 for unknown reasons, they did not reconcile but lived apart. In 1943, she attempted to divorce him again, and then she dismissed that. After the Yalta Conference in 1945, Emily finally divorced Adolph. It’s unclear why there were delays, but it is thought to involve practical WWII elements and spousal privilege.

For more information about Emily’s pre-1945 life, see below "I. Mystery, danger & misunderstandings: Emily Hall Tremaine in the 1930s".

1945 - news brief - Emily Hall Tremaine (then Spreckels) granted divorce

(1 April 1945). Mrs. Spreckels granted divorce [re-used photo, cropped, of Emily wearing diamonds in 1940]. Los Angeles Times, p. 3. (Viewed 7 December 2019. P00299).

"The married life of Mrs. Emily Spreckels, social leader, and Adolph Spreckels, sugar-fortune heir, marked during its six years by three divorce actions, apparently was definitely terminated yesterday... all papers in the case, including a property settlement were ordered sealed by the court... [In 1940] each filed an answer denying the other’s allegations... " (Excerpt from above).

  • Offline - see worldcat.org for locations or contact area public library.

1945 - news brief - Emily Hall Tremaine (then Spreckels) granted divorce

AP (Las Vegas, March 31). (1 April 1945). Adolph B. Spreckels divorced [no photo]. New York Times, p. 29. (Viewed 7 December 2019. P00301).

  • Offline - see worldcat.org for locations or contact area public library.

This media coverage compilation is in development.

1945 - Burton marries Emily

See the texts

After Emily finally divorced Adolph B. Spreckels, Jr., shortly afterwards she married Burton Tremaine and more or less then officially moved to New York and Connecticut. This was the last social-oriented wire service media round for Emily. Afterwards, her media skills were focused on her developing art / design collection with Burton. In essence, she moved the media frame away from herself to her artworks.

What’s interesting given her previous media / comm practice is we don’t see photos of her or around the wedding. None also were in her scrapbook. Given the shocking 1940-41 media waves with re-used photos, it suggests in this case that she opted out and was moving on, and/or this was desired by Burton as a businessman, etc., in other words, to keep it as low-key as possible.

1945 - social brief - Emily to marry Tremaine

Santa Barbara, Calif., April 13, (AP). (14 April 1945). Mrs. Spreckels will be wed to B. G. Tremaine. Meriden Record, p. 3, col. 1. (Viewed 21 July 2023. P03065).

1945 - social brief - Emily marries Tremaine

Phoenix, Ariz., May 1 (AP). (2 May 1945). B.G. Tremaine, baron’s widow wed in Phoenix [interestingly no mention of Spreckels in chosen AP news in Meriden paper.] Meriden Record, p. 3, col. 1. (Viewed 21 July 2023. P03066).

This compilation is in development.

1946 - spotlighted article mention

Pearson, Drew. (25 October 1946). Drew Pearson [with mention of Philip Johnson’s pro-Nazi, pro-fascist support]. Daily News (Los Angeles), p. 40. (Viewed 8 December 2023. S00645).

"... Rogge says: ’At one time Dennis, Palmer and Philip Johnson were contemplating some sort of publication of their own... ’ ..." (Excerpt from above.)

1946 - other articles

See the articles

In a Burton and Emily context, they may not have been aware of this syndicated report, or maybe opted for a "forgive and forget" approach. It’s not clear at this juncture when either first met, or engaged with Philip Johnson.

1946 - article mention

Pearson, Drew. (25 October 1946). Washington merry-go-round [with mention of Philip Johnson’s pro-Nazi, pro-fascist support]. Press Democrat (Santa Rosa, California), presumably p. 14. (Viewed 8 December 2023. S00646).

1946 - article mention

Pearson, Drew. (25 October 1946). Washington merry-go-round; Pearson reveals how Nazis used magazine [with mention of Philip Johnson’s pro-Nazi, pro-fascist support]. Tulare Advance Register (Tulare, California), p. 6. (Viewed 8 December 2023. S00647).

1946 - article mention

Pearson, Drew. (25 October 1946). Washington merry-go-round; U. S. fooled by propaganda [with mention of Philip Johnson’s pro-Nazi, pro-fascist support]. San Bernardino Sun (California), presumably p. 28. (Viewed 8 December 2023. S00648).

This media compilation is in development.

1951 - letter - Burton Tremaine to Nelson Rockefeller re. Johnson

(27 December 1951). Letter: Burton Tremaine to Nelson A. Rockefeller, President, Museum of Modern Art, New York. (Viewed 14 June 2024).

  • Online - artdesigncafe.com.
  • This letter puts forth a professional connection between Johnson and Tremaine from 1948 or 1949. The brief letter suggests this is a somewhat new or distant connection for Tremaine to Rockefeller. More could possibly be found in Rockefeller’s papers at MoMA, noting that Emily’s papers regarding her art activity have a curious absence, unknown cause, over that period, c. 1945-60, with her extensive lending of artworks to exhibitions including the Painting toward architecture Miller Co. period.

2000 - book mentions - contexts: Alcoa, General Electric, General Motors, Henry Ford

Sutton, Anthony C. (2000). Wall Street and the rise of Hitler. G SG G & Associates / Clairview Books. (Viewed 13 June 2024. archive.org. V00069).

2016 - book - Cleveland context

Cikraji, Michael. (2016). The Cleveland Nazis: 1933-45. MSL Academic Endeavors eBooks, Cleveland State University. (Viewed 13 June 2024).

NOTE: A quick keyword scan shows no mention of Bedaux, General Electric, Johnson, Lanier-Winslow, Rockefeller, Swope and Tremaine. There are several mentions of Kapp, and his predecessor Rolf Kassler (1934-36 as German Consul to Cleveland). Henry Ford is mentioned receiving the award from Hitler via Karl Kapp. This book might focus on the more on pockets outside of society and business.

2016 - book - Cleveland context

Cikraji, Michael. (2016). The Cleveland Nazis: 1933-45. MSL Academic Endeavors eBooks, Cleveland State University. (Viewed 13 June 2024).

NOTE: A quick keyword scan shows no mention of Bedaux, General Electric, Johnson, Lanier-Winslow, Rockefeller, and Tremaine. There are several mentions of Kapp, and his predecessor Rolf Kassler (1934-36 as German Consul to Cleveland). Henry Ford is mentioned receiving the award from Hitler via Karl Kapp. This book might focus on the more on pockets outside of society and business.

2018 - book mentions - contexts: Ford Motor Co., General Motors

Hart, Bradley W. (2018). Hitler’s American friends; the Third Reich’s supporters in the United States. St Martin’s Press. (Viewed 11 July 2024).