The Problematic Discourse on ’Philippe Starck’s’ Delano Hotel (1999) - Focus on content

V. The Problematic Discourse on "Philippe Starck’s" Delano Hotel (1999) - Focus on Content: The Cumulative Content of the Writings

When examining the "content" of the writings, the claims, identifications, descriptions, and interpretations are subjected to the contexts previously addressed in this dissertation. Yet, despite these shortcomings, they function as providing important information and scaffolds for the creation of new texts, both as secondary information today and the primary information of tomorrow. In this section, I have compiled a sample of the different presences and claims of the totality of the writing to see the commonalities and disagreements that the writings contain.

The overall structure of this section is based upon argumentation, influenced by the art history-specific approach of David Carrier (1987, 1991). Carrier (1991) actively engages in using argumentation to show the spiraling nature of academic art historical discourse and the problems with these writings. While exemplified through specific case studies, it is believed that they represent art historical academic writings to a great degree. In his earlier work (1987: 108-34) he compares four accounts of an artist’s work across four art press genres and shows that, unlike academic texts, these texts really don’t argue. When referring to the sociocultural processes indicated earlier, one may indeed draw the same conclusion with the writings on the Delano. Further, the presences and absences in the writings indicate an implicit level of argumentation, which itself can be comparable to academic hedging, and affect the discourse.[13] Each section will address the following issues: intention-interpretation; accuracy / confirmation; and presences and absences via Figures 1, 2 and 3. Due to economy, only a selection of the published writings will be referred to, and the dynamics of basic information, the design process, design information centred on the Delano— and its parts, hotel users, and staff— will be explored to show the initial problems of identification, description, and evaluation of these concerns. Contexts and comparisons are excluded as they are scaffolds off of these initial starting points and are more complicated constructions, and have been addressed to a certain degree in previous sections. Lastly, it is important to note that Fairclough (1995b) and Bhatia (1993) engage in using writing samples as textual and "visual evidence" in a markedly similar way like art/design history uses visual material. As a result, the use of heavy quotations on the one hand tells the story; on the other, it is a necessary ingredient for illustrating the texts.

A. The Questions

1. Basic Facts
Who owns the hotel? The answer to this question actually depends on whom you ask. Ian Schrager is the most likely favorite, or alternatively, Ian Schrager Hotels, but this doesn’t include investors. Sometimes writers and publications make mistakes, as did The Exec (1996) which writes "The Delano is partially owned by that noted hotelier, Madonna, and Ian Schrieger [sic]." Despite the abundance of other writings stating that Madonna was and perhaps still is an investor in the hotel’s Blue Door restaurant, the hotel’s public relations representative, dka, doesn’t seem to mind (nor the misspelling of the name of their client), as they included The Exec clipping in the press kit. Meanwhile, Konigsberg in New York (10 March 1997), using reported speech from Schrager, writes "... Leon Black and the other partners at Apollo, the real-estate concern that owns a 50% share in the Delano..." Despite this, the bulk of writings indicate that Schrager is the owner, or at least through the absence of other information, he certainly functions in the writings as the lead media spokesperson, which has its publication and media advantages, as does Starck being identified as the designer of the hotel. This information is, when possible, largely controlled by the hotel, and is practically speaking, intention-dominated.[14]

Number of guest rooms. While the popular choice is 238 rooms (for example, Miller, 1995; Nasatir 1995; Russell 1996); Ian Schrager Hotels List and Synopsis (c. 1998) indicates 224 with 208 keys. Sometimes numbers get confused in the public relations, writing, and editorial process as with the on-line version of Rowe in Lodging Hospitality (1995), where the room count magically escalates to 328. This shows two problems: first, as indicated in the National Writers Union literature, writers need to be concerned about errors and omissions in material regarding possible libel suits (c. 1998); secondly, this detail is almost impossible to confirm and empowers corporate and design studio intention holders. xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx Self-censored (See Appendix B) xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx Comically, even the number of stories of the building can vary: 16 for Nasatir (1995) and 14 for Brulee (1995).

How much did the renovation cost? Pick a number, as the number appears to vary across the writings. Sometimes it is 22 million US (Whoriskey 1995; Russell 1996); at other times it is 20 million (Mays 1996; Rowe 1995; Tyrnauer 1995), and at the end of the day, what is 2 million dollars? The point again is to illustrate inconsistencies and the power of information-gatekeepers, despite the fact that property records at either the city or county government record office would list this information as part of public record, including mortgages.[15]

2. The Design Process
Walker (1989: 64) in his book on design writing approaches and historiography states, "A plausible case could be made for the contention that the central focus of design historians ought to be the process of designing because designing is the heart of the subject. Problematically, as this section will show, the process can lead to outrageous fiction, and it needs to be considered within the sociocultural practices of designing and its media context.

a. Acquisition
Imagine, if you will, a successful New Yorker, travelling down to decrepit South Beach in Miami, reminiscing about a childhood experience long ago when the area was bustling with activity, and this powerful New Yorker has dreams of reclaiming the glory of a decaying architectural jewel and raising the area to international prominence. This shapes, in fact, some of the narratives offered for the acquisition process, but perhaps not as dramatic. Compare the following: according to Andrei in Nasatir (1995), "We saw it for the first time three days after Hurricane Andrew, and Ian fell in love with it immediately" (drama infusion?); "Schrager fell in love with the Delano as a boy vacationing with his family" (Miller 1995); and Bartolucci (1995) takes it a step further with the Delano "was where Schrager himself vacationed as a boy". Here, the intention clearly rests within the Schrager camp, xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx There are differences within the power of the presentation, with reported speech of the event appearing like facts.

b. Who Designed the Hotel?
For many of the writings, one would think that only two people were involved, Starck and Schrager, and this feeds into "entrepreneurial" history (Walker 1989: 55) and the emphasis upon designers and "movers" which include romantic notions of individualism. Nasatir in Interior Design (1995), perhaps reflecting the sensitivities of the magazine’s readership, goes into great detail listing Anda Andrei, director of design for Schrager’s hotels, lighting designers, and mechanical engineers. (Equally problematic, due to economy, even I’m not listing out all of the players.) The point is that here there is a potential feast of intertextuality that is not utilized in the Delano discourse, which leads back to discussions about voices and how certain sources are chosen over others and their sociocultural processes. xxxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx Self-censored (See Appendix B) xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xxx xx xxx xxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxx xx xx xxx xxx x xx xxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxx Adding to the complexity, what is Schrager’s role in the design process? Schrager in Young (1995) says Starck "is one of the stars of a team of 10 to 15 people who work on my hotels... All I am is an editor in each project... Some things are one-line jokes which we edit out..."

So, there are a few problems here: genre conventions and inherent philosophies for indicating authorship, including desires by readerships for simplification and economy; xxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xx xxxx xxx xxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxxx xx xxx xx xxx xx xxx the sociocultural practices of designers, clients, and workers; and the economic cachet of brand names, in this case, "Starck". xxx xxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx x xxxx Here and above: Self-censored (See Appendix B) xxx xxxx xx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xx

c. Renovation and Preservation Issues
According to Andrei in Nasatir (1995), sounding like a romantic remembrance of a dream,

"Everything arranged itself so naturally... The way we began to work on the Delano, and the way we’ve worked on all our projects, is the three of us walk through the entire site. Ian talks about how he sees the project. I talk about what the restrictions and limitations are. Then Philippe spends time alone, walking through the space... At the Delano, everything fell into place easily. The building itself has such great bones and spectacular spaces."

Meanwhile, Tyrnauer (1995) in Vanity Fair quotes Schrager stating: "For the Delano I wasn’t interested in being pigeonholed into doing something retro, something Art Deco or Art Moderne." And according to Mays (1996), he and Starck even went to the lengths of ripping out a historic lobby interior to achieve their goals, and surprisingly, or perhaps not, this is the only article in the selection even mentioning this contentious topic. However, while the topic facilitates a polemic about the evils of destroying historical interiors, the article is governed by a "balanced" approach that the interior design as it is now is exceptional, while the aspect of the destruction of the interior is problematical.[16] Mays reports that:

"the loss of the hotel’s Deco interior and much of its signature ballroom has caused some grumbling... ’When the Delano went through the approvals process, the review boards were not looking into the interior significance as much as they would do today,’ says Betty Gutierrez, the president of the Miami Design Preservation League... The league fought the changes proposed to the Delano during an architectural review process. But local ordinances gave the city no authority over interior alterations... the city allowed them to virtually demolish the entire lobby. It had a spectacular geometric-patterned terrazzo floor and octagonal columns which picked up the exterior decorative motifs... Another bone of contention at the Delano was the ballroom, in which an angled wall mimicked the shape of the hotel’s sawtooth facade. The city’s planning staff recommended that the city commission deny the hotel’s request to demolish a major portion of the ballroom. In this case, a compromise was reached. The disputed area became part of the outdoor terrace that stretches across the back of the hotel, and a vestigial wall with intact window frames was left standing to serve as a reminder of the former grand room."

According to Mays (1996), xxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxx xx xxxx

"Starck is circumspect in his assessment of the results, noting only that a Deco design was out of the question without waging a frontal attack on the prevailing style. His tack instead was, he says, to ’have a little bit of wit and whimsy about what we do, to make a little poetry, to be a little lyrical.’ But Starck’s muse disregarded many of the characteristics that were peculiar to the Delano lobby. Not only did he cover the signature terrazzo floor with wide-plank cherry, but he walled off the flanking mezzanines, dismantled the bridge connecting them, and sheathed the hotel’s quirky octagonal columns with cylindrical covers."

Meanwhile for Schrager:

"he made it widely known that his intent with the Delano was to rework the hotel in a manner that had ’zero’ to do with the polychrome precedents of South Beach. Nearby landmarks such as the Colony and Park Central hotels brashly display the exterior pastels that have become the trademark of South Beach. Not the Delano" (Mays 1996).

"To his credit, Starck did many things at the Delano by the book. The exterior remains fairly true to the original, although every window was rebuilt. The sizes of windows opening were preserved and the decorative architecture features were kept intact (ibid)"

Further adding to the overcome crisis-success plot of balance, Mays (1996) writes:

"And even if the Delano, in the strictest sense, is not good preservation, it appears to be good for preservation in many ways. As the recipient of obscene amounts of publicity, the hotel has kept the media spotlight fixed on South Beach."

And if this doesn’t satisfy you, then try this: "Since the hotel’s demolition and construction plans were approved in 1994, the city has altered its preservation ordinance to gain control over the renovation of ’public interior’ spaces" (Mays 1996). This topic in particular raises several issues xxxx xx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxxxxx and press material, as well as highlighting the absences within other published writings. Xxxxxxx xxx xx xxx xxxx xxx Self-censored (See Appendix B) xxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxx xxx xx xx xx xxxx xxxx xx xxxx xx xxxxx xx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xx xxx xxx xxxx xx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx x xxxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxx xxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xx xxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxx xx xxxx xxx xxxxx xx xx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx

Further, William Cary, historic preservation coordinator for the city of Miami Beach, says— in Mays (1996)— that he is "concerned that someone who is unfamiliar with Art Deco architecture could walk into the Delano lobby and mistake it for a restored original." This possible misidentification is also sometimes facilitated in the writing, as in Letts (1997) who writes "At the Delano... Schrager and his designer Starck have lured the beautiful and the rich back to an art-deco building", without distinguishing the exterior tower, other sections, and interior. This dissection and juxtaposition of quotations illustrates the following: the power of intention for some published writings xxx xx xxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx the power of presences and absences, as with the renovation issues the question doesn’t arise except for one of the published writings in the sample. With reference to Figure 2 on voices, we see the limited range of voices writers have accessed regarding these topics.

d. On Starck-Schrager Working Relationship
Don’t forget Anda Andrei, director of design for Ian Schrager Hotels, like most of the published writings. For Andrei quoted in Nasatir (1995) "The three of us were quite a team already. That makes life much easier, at the very least because of the level of trust"— for their third hotel design after New York’s Royalton and Paramount. xxx xxx xxx xxxx xxxx xx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xx xxx xx xx xxx xxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxx

Meanwhile, for Kandini, who works at the Delano, in Russell (1996), "He’s [Starck] like a chef who doesn’t like anyone to interrupt his creativity while he’s cooking a particular dish. He wants to follow his own ideas," which leads into Aldersey-Williams (1996) question, "What is he like to work with? Surely he is a prima donna. Temper tantrums, missed deadlines, budgets through the roof?... If this is how it is, then no one is telling,"— xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxxx

Meanwhile, Konigsberg (1997), Bone (1998), and Letts (1998) describe a recipe of trouble at the inn with media-covered blasts by Schrager, restaurateur McNally, bar manager Gerber, and a spice of Madonna "I hate you" messages. Withers (1998) in Harper’s Bazaar writes that after former business partner and close friend Steve Rubell died in 1989 of one or more of several printed possibilities, Rubell’s estate inheritors, his niece and nephew— who are now also involved in the boutique hotel business— "split from the Schrager partnership under less-than-harmonious circumstances" which is not detailed. xxx xxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxx xxx xxx xx xxxx

In the two markedly similar side-by-side Q&A Starck and Schrager interviews by Young (1995/96), followed by MacInnes (1996), the former includes quotes by Schrager stating:

"I am an editor on each project... Some things [by Starck] are one-line jokes which we edit out. But most things are refined until they can be built.... To me the angel [over the bed] is just an extra coat peg... This is just not a time for one upmanship and three-legged chairs... But if Philippe could do a successful hotel on his own he would. He can’t so he is one of the stars of a team of 10 to 15 people who work on my hotels."

Starck, who is characterized as "underwhelmed" after the completion of the Delano, states "If I do Ian’s next hotel The Mondrian... it will be my last," in a long quotation which focuses on abstract design philosophy and his other work. Interestingly, in the design press, Schrager doesn’t have the same latitude as Starck in talking about other aspects of his work. Meanwhile, Muse (1998) teasingly, xxxx xxxx xxx refers to "Philippe Starck, who has emerged as Schrager’s court designer." [17] Lastly, Ryan (1995) offers a quote from Schrager:

"’I didn’t want to duplicate the New York hotels down here. That’s why I was wary of working again with Philippe. I didn’t want to repeat what we’d already done. But I asked him if he could do something completely different. And he rose to the occasion magnificently."

xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxx xx xxxx xxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxx xxxx xx xxxx xxxx xxxx Apparently, Starck had his own doubts, "But then I realised that I had become a key link in the whole process... and I couldn’t walk away from that duty." Xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxxxx xx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxx Self-censored (See Appendix B) xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xx xxxx x xxxx xx xxxxx xxxx xx xx xxx xx xxxx xx xxxx xx xxxx xxx xxx xx xxxx xx xxxx xxxxx xxx. Comparing the quoted information with Figures 1 and 2, the lack of information is painfully glaring. Xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xx xxx xx xx xxx xx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx x xxxx So while I agree with Walker (1989: 64) in that "Any process is, of course, much harder to observe than a finished product", it is problematic that various writing and spoken genres essentially require accounts of information about design processes from information-gatekeepers. Xxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx

3. Characterizations and Visual Design Aspects

a. General Characterizations of the Hotel (see Ill. 1-17)
The general characterizations about the hotel xxx xx xxx xxxx xxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx Alternatively, it can be "a surreal, dreamy anti-resort" or an "unresort" (Nasatir, 1995); "an Art Deco architectural drama" (Russell, 1996); "an adult resort that accommodates children" (Lindberg 1995); "a gleaming all-white ’family resort’" (Miller 1995). Intertextually, "Ian Schrager calls the... Delano.. ’a theme park that’s not cartoon characters’" (Russell, 1996), "simple chic" (Webb, March-April 1997); a "homage to the American spirit of family and an elegantly pure and honest response to the era of over-design" (Nasatir 1995). It can also be "like checking into an asylum, the joke’s on us" or "A European palace and garden" (art historian Jewel Stern and Publicist Joan Spector in Russell, 1996).

Meanwhile, the press material includes that the Delano "is intended to re-invent the resort experience... realizes the new concept of "Simple Chic"... close[s] the ’generation gap’... with cutting-edge style and grand public spaces..." (Ian Schrager Hotels List and Synopsis, c. 1998). But let’s not forget, it’s also "playful, witty, surprising, and elegant" too (ibid), "creating an inviting stage set" (Bartolucci 1995), and "hotel-as-spectacle" (Muse 1998). Starck’s take on the Delano isn’t terribly surprising, "I am the movie director of the clients of this hotel; they are the actors, not the spectators— never! Everything is make [sic] to give surprise for the people" (Tyrnauer 1995). Adding to the diversity, Davies in Elle (1995) [18] states "the hotel was conceived as a three-act play"— then Schrager is quoted—"The first act is outside, bright and colorful; the second is a sexy, dark interior, and the last act is the hotel rooms themselves— white, pristine, and very understated." While the totality of the writings would suggest that this is really schizophrenic design, or at least one of multiple personalities, for each of these characterizations there is "evidence" provided via the design, guests, and atmosphere, showing the design’s textual multiplicity, but also the limitations of evidence-claim structures. Self-censored (See Appendix B) xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xx

b. Whiteness (see Ill. 1-9, 13-16)
Whiteness is a popular content "hit" to describe the hotel thematically, which occurs as a governing theme and angle in itself pulling in the Delano as exemplification— as in Murphy (1997). This also is a recurring thread and mention within Delano-centred articles, and fleeting sentence-mentions about the hotel. Whiteness describes the exterior and guest room interiors, and recurringly appears in juxtapositions in the lobby areas— like the Eames’ La Chaise (1948), the hanging curtains and columns— yet not completely for the hotel, as some writers may allude with their generalities. According to Brulee (1995):

"From the moment the valet opens your car door, save for the brief interruption of wood tones in the lobby, the hotel delivers countless shades of white. Male and female staff are in white twill shorts and blazers, TVs are white, stereos are white, the women’s rooftop spa is 40 shades of white and not surprisingly most of the clientele are white."

Is everything in the room white? According to Tyrnauer (1995), there are a few accents of pearl gray and pale green and the Granny Smith apple which rests on an oversized hook near the bathroom; underneath it, "An apple a day keeps the doctor away" is engraved, in Starck’s moralist / wit statement.

The whiteness of the hotel has several contexts in the writings, like those illustrated in Figure 3. For other white hotels, Murphy (1997) addresses not only the Hempel in London, but also writes "Given such obsession, Starck might be surprised to learn that he has long been out-whited. The first, and still the most unusual, white hotel is at Jukkasjarvi in Swedish Lapland." Regarding the color’s historical role in South Beach, Mays (1996) writes:

"Ironically, the absence of exterior color puts the Delano closer to historical correctness than many of its counterpart in South Beach. Originally white was the color scheme of most of the surrounding buildings, and color was used sparingly to accent the thin edges of window eyebrows or to highlight architectural details. The widespread use of vibrant pastel pinks, turquoises, and lavenders— begun in the 1980s by interior designer Leonard Horowitz— are really an elaboration to jazz up the Art Deco buildings that had been painted in the 1970s earth tones, says Randall Robinson, the league’s historic preservation director. ’Leonard’s introduction of pastels was a device to generate interest in these buildings. As such, it was wildly successful. It is to the point now where people associate pastels with Art Deco, with Miami Beach and, particularly, with Florida.’"

Regarding sociocultural and psychological dynamics, Murphy (1997) in a class-sensitive rant, finds the whiteness somewhat disturbing:

"There is something so uncompromising about decking out an entire hotel in white, that it is the sure sign of an environment created by and for people who always get their own way. This usually means they wield a large wallet. As does the sheer impracticality: don’t think about living the white life unless you can afford big bills at the dry cleaners. This alone separates the in-crowd from the greying rest of the world. What’s more, white makes the in-crowd feel good about themselves. The colour of wedding dresses symbolises purity and restraint. Just the qualities that those with wealth weighing on their conscience are eager to claim as their own. Those in the business of making money are cunning when they sell a home from home, a new outfit in a clean, white environment. It makes all concerned forget that what it is really about is dirty old money."

Meanwhile, Murphy (1997) writes:

"according to Schrager, the Delano’s whiteness is a reaction against the pay-and-display ethos; designed to appeal to people who want to spend money without being seen to be doing it... In a very 1980s kind of way, the theme-park whiteness informs us that this is a special place where only special people belong (summed up in those ironic yet still awful Martini advertisements ’a bit of plastic surgery and you’ll be beautiful enough for our club’ which were filmed there CH) [sic]. The fact that everything is white only draws attention to the same old ’design on steroids’: all the right furniture (pieces by Gaudi, Dali, and Eames...) has been hand-picked for all the right people to lounge in."

Further, the whiteness has been criticized regarding its practical function. Miller (1995) quotes Starck: "In a complex society, it’s good to know there is a place where everything is purity and serenity", to which Miller counters "but white is hardly practical for all those kids", xx xxx xxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx Anda Andrei, part of the trustful threesome, quoted in Nasatir (1995) says:

"there is a practical basis for the choice... Generally the carpets and walls are beige or greige, to hide the dirt. To repaint the floor annually is actually cheaper and easier. Also, you see dirt on white surfaces, so you can clean it immediately instead of letting it build up. Also, we have used white slipcovers and bed covers in our other hotels, so we know what to do. I’m not saying that some maids won’t go crazy."

So, demonstrated through this abundance of quotes, we see that the visual element "color" of an object or surface is employed as a unifying tool with some diversity due to the various shades used. The color essentially centres on the exterior, and secondarily in the guest rooms, and is used for certain objects in the lobby interior. Yet, as shown in Figure 1, the interaction between the color and the other aspects of the individual objects and surfaces in not necessarily discussed, and in the selection of writings, other repeated or diversified approaches to elements, principles, and stylistic features are not really discussed, showing a great absence of discussion on the hotel (although I’ll be discussing focal point in the discussion to come.) For whiteness, basically what we do know is that several objects are white, it is intended, there is a concept behind it, it is controversial, and that Murphy (1997) employs a socio-psycho-read-rant on its inherent evilness.

c. Financial Success of the Hotel
The financial health of the hotel, which is a tricky discussion in light of libel laws for writing, appears mixed as well. According to Ian Schrager Hotels press release regarding the hotel group name change (c. 1998), "In 1995, Schrager properties will generate more than $100 million in revenues. Coupled with the extraordinary success of Mr. Schrager’s trio of New York properties..." Meanwhile in the art and design trade press writings, Rothstein (1997) reports "Annual revenues at the five hotels exceed $150 million, with occupancy rates exceeding 90 percent or higher"— with no reported speech or quote; it is in essence, "fact". Miller (1997) asserts the same, in the same factual-looking manner. Nasatir (1995) calls them "wildly successful". Rowe in Lodging Hospitality (1995) uses reported speech from Schrager, "He claims to average 70 percent profit in the rooms division."

Meanwhile, Bohner Lewis in Forbes (4 December 1995) would undoubtably question these notions of success. xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xxxxx xx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxx Miller (1997) writes "After struggling a few years, Schrager rebounded, rescuing the New York hotels and buying the Delano in Miami Beach." It is a bit unclear how one would go about determining the financial health history of the hotels. Xxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xx xxx xxxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxx xx xxxxx xxxx x xxxx x xxx xxxx xxx xxx xxxx xx xxxxx.[19]

4. Specific Parts of the Hotel

a. Indoor/Outdoor Lobby in General (see Ill. 1-13)
The press information sets the tone of this "exceptional" hotel (Ian Schrager Hotels List and Synopsis, c. 1998), and this can be used as a starting point for discussions about the "indoor/outdoor lobby":

"Further refining the art of ’lobby socializing,’ [in comparison to the New York hotels] Delano’s INDOOR / OUTDOOR LOBBY is composed of a series of eight beautifully conceived areas that are distinct in form and function but together create the feel of an intertwined village. In a totally original manipulation of space that blurs all ’normal’ distinctions, the lobby offers a seamless separation between the indoors and outdoors."

Starting from blue door and hedge in the front, and into the lobby, and back to the pool area and beach, the entire overpromotion of the indoor / outdoor lobby, with some writings themselves hyping it, is nothing original. Any trip to a tropical area will provide several examples of integrated interior and exterior seating areas and activities.

Further, the public relations material states:

"Reinventing the swimming pool, Delano’s ’Water Salon’ is a completely new exercise in pool design, recalling Roman baths. Most recently, Ian Schrager extended the feel of the Indoor / Outdoor lobby to the ocean’s edge adding the "BEACH VILLAGE," a sophisticated, European-style resort, set past the hotel’s famed Water Salon, and directly on the beach. Combining influences from such sunsoaked and far-reaching regions as Italy’s romantic Amalfi coast, exotic Pantelleria and the Greek Isles..."

xxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xx xxxx xxxxx xx Self-censored (See Appendix B) xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xx xxxxx x xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xx xxxxxx xx xxxxxx xx xxx xx xxxxxx xxx xx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xxxx x xxxx xx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxx xx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxx xxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xx xxxx xxx xxxx xxxx x xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxxxx

Further, in the Delano Fact Sheet (c.1998), the following flashes are offered: "lobby socializing", "’hotel as theater’ concept", "series of eight beautiful areas", "create the feeling of an interwoven ’village’", "guest find both a center of activity and an escape" (See Hubbard, 1998, who uses this angle), "eat-in-kitchen", "International Collection of more than 670 pieces of furniture and objects", a "water salon" with "underwater classical music", "An orchard... [with] "50’ Washingtonian Palm Trees". However, the power of the visual and textual hits at times moves directly into the writings, or vice versa, which will now on be italicized to stress the usage of content "hits". Tyrnauer (1995) writes that the lobby "blurs distinction between interior and exterior" (a rewrite of "indoor/outdoor lobby"); for Nasatir (1995):

’The Delano’s public spaces— i.e., lobby, bars and restaurants, pool, spa, private beach— move from the indoors out and from the city to the ocean. The entire succession of experiences proceeds from the entrance on Collins Avenue through the 22-ft.-high lobby, containing a sequence of spaces separated by sheer gauze curtains (all told, 18,000 ft. of mosquito-netting-like material, hung from the ceiling and lit like scrims), to the brilliant outdoor "rooms" beyond’ (my italics).

For Mays (1996):

"the lobby is divided "into a sequence of four rooms by flowing twenty-two-foot-high gauze drapes, the Delano’s public spaces are indeed handsome. Dark and soothing in contrast to the harsh glare outside, the rooms have an ethereal quality reinforced by a surprising use of materials, a deft manipulation of scale, dramatic lighting, and a random assortment of furnishings that range from a Charles and Ray Eames chaise to a Salvador Dali chair with legs shaped as women’s high heels" (my italics).

b. Exterior Front: Hedge, Blue Door, and Porch (see Ill. 1-2)
In the visual-experiential procession, the hedge, blue door, and porch dominate the entrance into the lobby interior. The hotel "has no exterior signage, just a white porch with billowing ceiling-to-floor drapes (The Exec 1996, my italics). "At the hotel’s sidewalk entrance— a small blue door within a tall wall of cyprus with a ficus arch..." (Bartolucci 1995, my italics);...overscaled Alice-in-Wonderland hedge...." [Mays 1996, my italics); "A small blue door almost hidden in the abundant green hedge in front of the hotel sets up the scenario for Alice’s world." (Russell 1996, my italics); and lastly, "... a lunatic hedge" for Brulee (1995).

c. Interior Lobby: Curtains, etc. (see Ill. 3-4)
For the lobby interior, the design flashing notables emerge from the text:

"Spinning theatrical fantasy is the stuff of Starck. He looks for ’mythical materials’ that add layers of meaning. At the Delano, for example, mahogany paneling in the longitudinal processional lobby recreates the impression of Alice’s dark tunnel" (Russell 1996, my italics);

"... with dark wood walls and a double row of hefty white columns, the lobby is both imperial and mysterious. Diaphanous white cotton curtains hang from floor to ceiling on both sides of the columned passage, subdividing the space into more intimate salons." (Whoriskey 1995, my italics);

"An eccentric collection of furniture by Dali, Gaudi, Eames, and Starck (Whoriskey 1995, my italics).

"Giant pendant lampshades, a 12 foot-high sofa in the lobby, and a procession of overscale columns along the central tunnel-like axis into the restaurant, give the impression that the visitor has gone through Alice’s miniaturization process to gain entrance to the secret garden beckoning beyond." (Russell 1996, my italics).

"On one side of the lobby is an ’eat-in-kitchen’, an all-white dining space with one tall table and chairs; the arrangement is designed to entice people to eat together. Opposite, a series of two curtains sequester the public phones, creating booths, as it were. A colonnade of tall fat columns crosses perpendicularly, naturally creating a sequence of niches. (Nasatir 1995, my italics).

"’This one [Delano lobby] contains about seven or eight groupings of furniture, and a billiard table. There is the most amazing collection of furniture, very modern and classic pieces along with leather and Victorian sofas. There are also African stools from the flea market in Paris... You go into the living room to the Rose Bar,’ she [Andrei] continued. ’Everything in it is rose colored, from the floor to the velvet curtains lining the perimeters. After that, there’s another row of sheer curtains, and after that, the restaurant, which is not separated from the rest of the public space.’ Another row of curtains hangs in front of the back terrace. Andrei traced this most fluid of plans to Starck’s idea of the ’basic vacation home, which doesn’t have separate rooms or formal walls. Rather, each area tends to flow into the next, and finally to the exterior.’ A series of steps leads down to the orchard, which is meant to serve as an outdoor living room." (Nasatir 1995, my italics).

While Starck is infamous for his public bathroom designs, in the selected writings, this is downplayed or dominated by the other aspects of the interior within the context of the publication genre constraints, yet Russell (1996) states "At the Delano the men’s room is pink and women’s blue."

d. Exterior Back: Garden and Pool Area (see Ill. 10-13)
For the back garden and pool, the same kind of media "hits" occur with the discussion of the design: "the gardens, with surreally oversized chess set and 80 palm trees which Schrager had flown in from Washington because the local ones were not quite right. (Letts 1997, my italics). While for others:

"’Our biggest challenge was to create outdoor spaces that had the same feeling as those indoors,’ she noted. Bungalows— duplex suites really— open onto the pool. The pool itself was designed as a kind of water salon with a great deal of shallow space (1 ft. deep) to stretch, or to place tables and chairs. ’There is a swimming area beyond. But the water is meant for lounging, not for lap swimming, so a bench has been built-in all the way around, "Andrei said. (Nasatir 1995, my italics);

"The swimming pool is built so that water flows over its edge. In the shallow end, they have placed a small cocktail table and two chairs in the middle of the pool with a candelabra that is lit at night. (White candles are very big here.)" (The Exec 1996, my italics);

"And out on the lawn, surreal groupings of indoor furniture around chess boards precede the pool, where a table and chair set for two are set in the shallow end— which Starck calls the ’water salon’" (Russell 1996, my italics);

"at the Delano, deck chairs set on a carpet of water." (Muse 1998, my italics);

"For starters he commissioned a sun study and found that most of the rays were closer to the beach. Cutting through over 19 local and state variances, he moved the pool and re-christened it the ’water salon’. Flanked by eight duplex bungalows down one side and a space that Starck believes followers of Schrager’s hotels want." (Brulee 1995, my italics).

e. Guest Rooms and Bathrooms (see Ill. 14-17)
Looking at the four photogenic photos in Taschen (1996) and those in Lindberg’s Travel & Leisure (1998) piece, the guest rooms look sensually exotic. xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx Xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx The all-white TV, music, and mini-bar cupboard looks IKEA-esque, the whites look a bit dingy, the Granny Smith apple not terribly inspiring or inspired, and the desk painfully bland. Xxxx Self-censored (Here and below, see Copyright Law & Appendix B xxxxx xxxx xxxxx x xxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx

Yet, according to Nasatir, the "whiteness has cause something of a sensation", and Nasatir, The Exec (1996), Russell (1996), Rothstein (1997) all engage in the descriptive approach of white across objects in the room, in a somewhat predictable fashion. (See earlier "Whiteness" section for more detail.) xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xx xxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxxx xxx xx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xx xxx xxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx although originally in 1995 the rooms were reported to start at around 65 pounds. While, Schrager may have dubbed "Cheap Chic" with the much lower-priced Paramount hotel in New York (Ian Schrager Hotels, Paramount Fact Sheet, c. 1998), xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx Unfortunately, as illustrated, the absences in the writings are substantial in comparison to Figures 1, 2 and 3. An additional problem is the general-specific move from the approximately 238 rooms, suites, and bungalows to specific examples. So, for example, when viewing a hotel room interior, one is either a guest or sees rooms via a marketing / media relations department, xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx Comically, the way to see a great deal of the rooms would be to receive short-term hire in room service or as a chambermaid.

5. Hotel Users

a. Staff
Like the interiors and furnishings, the staff are reported to be designed, or at least carefully selected visual objects. Physically and promotionally, "All staff are dressed in white t-shirts and white jeans (and no body fat, we regret or gleefully report)" (The Exec, 1996). Xxxxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxx Self-censored (See Appendix B) xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxx xx Meanwhile, Letts (1997) quotes Schrager regarding staff hiring, referring to his hotels in general, "We don’t have interviews; we have casting calls... They come in and get ten to fifteen seconds to perform. There has to be some sparkle— it’s part of the fun and the show, part of the action."

Reports on the quality of the hotel staff vary from: "Simply put, the catering staff is the best... In fact, the entire hotel staff is the best. Rarely has The Exec had the pleasure of working with a sales and catering staff that was so flexible and efficient. At a high style hotel in snooty South Beach, one would expect some attitude from the staff. Not at all." (1996). Meanwhile, some of the London-published reports don’t seem as impressed:

"... through a sea of TV crews and paparazzi to find the front door and hopefully a bellboy, I’m intercepted by a clipboard wielding doorman. ’Are you a guest?’ he inquires. ’Almost, are you planning on escorting me to the front desk?’

Grabbing my bag, ushering me past the media mob and attempting to charm me in one deft move, such a passive-aggressive greeting could only occur at a hotel whose siblings are the Royalton and Paramount." (Brulee 1995).

Tuck (1997) reports poolside that:

"we soon discovered that if you dared to ask any vaguely cute-looking waiter or waitress to bring you a drink, let alone a sandwich, then you had a one-in-10 chance of ever getting it. Guest sitting around the pool laughed at us for even trying: ’You’ll never see that sandwich— we ordered yesterday and we still haven’t eaten’ they joked."

Self-censored (See Appendix B) xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxx xx xxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx But the interesting thing besides the comical content, is the fact that the staff themselves have become a notable content hit, further widening the selection of topics.

b. Guests
The guests themselves facilitate content hits in the writings. According to Schrager in Brulee (1995) "I can’t have hotels just anywhere like a Hilton does. I’ve got to be on the circuit and that’s why we’re in Miami now because there seems to be this menage-a-trois happening between New York, LA, and this place" (my italics). Who stays at the Delano? xxxx xxx xxxxx The Exec (1996) writes "Celebs, models, and wannabes are everywhere." (my italics) "Sly Stallone takes a corner table in the Blue Door restaurant... Michael Caine books the penthouse suite," writes Russell (1996, my italics). "On this particular weekend Francis Ford Coppola was chilling in his own cabana, while photographer Mario Testino was splashing about taking candid snaps of friends" (Brulee 1995, my italics); "wired into the network of celebrity culture... Calvin Klein, for example, is a poolside fixture, and... so hungry is the celebrity press for tidbits on the Material Girl [Madonna] that the hotel staff is prohibited from discussing her with guests" (Mays 1996, my italics). Further, in "A Sampling of Those Who’ve Met at the Delano" (Ian Schrager Hotels, c. 1998), we see company names like Evian, 20th Century Fox, and Chanel— not the Birmingham City Council or the World Wrestling Federation (my italics).

xxxx Here and below: Self-censored (See Appendix B) xxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xx xxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxx xxx xx xxx xxx xxxx xxxx xx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xx xxxxx xx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxxx "Although frequented by the painfully hip, the hotel is host to a flood of curiosity-seekers who come in all stripes—young and old, denim to silk. They come to see and say they have seen. ’This is a place to be,’ a man is overheard saying over lunch at the Blue Door, the hotel’s restaurant. ’If they go to Manhattan, you want to be able to say, ’I stayed at the Delano’" (Mays 1996). Meanwhile, Letts (1997) takes on a refreshingly cynical tone:

"Ian Schrager admits that his hotels are not for everyone. The portly businessman or the gauche weekend tourist will feel a proper prune at his Meccas of hipness, but that hardly seems to matter. He caters to the fashion and media set, and the wide class of people who want to associate with those worlds. One of the ironies of Schrager hotels is that, although avowedly individualistic, they in fact attract fashion sheep— the sort of people who buy wholesale into the tastes of the time."

xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxx xx xxxx xx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxx xx xxxx xxx xxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxx xxx xx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xx xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxxx Marin in New York (16 February 1998), on his South Beach survey, writes: "A quick drink at the Delano doesn’t live up: The lobby has a cheesy, touristy vibe." Lyons in FX (1996), also performing reconnaissance reports with the Paramount, "The place is let down really by the clientele. Where you hoped to be breakfasting with Naomi... you find the breakfast room filled with middle-aged, shell-suited Germans behaving badly..."

So, how do we account for the different writings and experiences? xxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxx xxxxxx xxx xxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxxx xxxx xxxx xx xxxxx xx xxxx xxxxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxx xxxx xxx xxx xxxxx xxxx xxx xx xx xxx xxxx xxx xx xx xxxx To what extent this actually has happened over the past three years is only known by those at the hotel, who by standard procedure, will refer you to the press office. Speaking specifically about the Royalton and Paramount, Arcidi (1993) writes "neither hotel could survive without the machinations of PR agents." Miller (1997) follows with "some of Schrager’s success stems from good old-fashioned media manipulation— whether it’s earring [sic] in a $30,000 ficus tree or hosting a high-profile birthday bash for Madonna." And what about the design connection? Rowe in Lodging Hospitality (1995) quotes Schrager, "Design is a marketing tool... It gets us noticed."

Table of contents | The Problematic Discourse on "Philippe Starck’s" Delano Hotel (1999) - Focus on content