Philip Johnson, pro-Nazi support - publications list

A creepy art, design and Nazi publicity compilation. "We forgave, but we didn’t forget," [Jewish architect Frank] Gehry was quoted Wednesday [after the death of Philip Johnson]. "He was so powerful a force for the good in our profession that it overwhelmed all negatives." Deutsche Welle (Berlin) (28 January 2005).

R.J. Preece (ADP)
Art Design Publicity at ADC (Twist, Twist, Snap Remix) | 30 November 2023 | Updated 24 June 2024

Spotlighted video

Rachel Maddow, MSNBC broadcast, 12 February 2024, referring to Tucker Carlson, Vladimir Putin and Philip Johnson: "With [Johnson], we had a committed American fascist allied with the Nazis, openly routing for them, trying to sell us this bill of goods." (Start at 8:07.)


Spotlighted video

See Lyden, Tom. (8 February 2021). FOX 9 news (KMSP) (Minneapolis, Minnesota) entry below for more details.



1930s

c. 1933-34 - PJ’s secretary speaks to FBI (in 1942)

(c. 1933-34). Ruth Merrill, regarding Philip Johnson, as reported by Kenneth M. Bierly in New York City (19 September 1942). Character of case: Internal security. Federal Bureau of Investigation (NY file no. 100-6004 ITN). (See 19 September 1942 entry below for quote.) (Viewed 4 December 2023.)



Philip Johnson pro-nazi

Click the photo to see part one of Philip Johnson’s declassified FBI report.



Huey Long, Democratic governor then Senator of Louisiana, was a fascist demagogue credited with building various public works projects for the poor. He also advocated for significant reforms for the far more equitable distribution of income during the Depression.

1934 - spotlighted news brief

UP (New York). (18 December 1934). Museum heads enter politics; study "Kingfish" [about Alan Blackburn, executive director of the Museum of Modern Art, as leader, and Philip Johnson, as co-founder of new National Party advocating for a new form of government, and their interest in the authoritarian Democrat Senator / former governor Huey Long from Louisiana]. Rochester Times-Union (New York), p. 1. col. 2. (Viewed 8 December 2023. S00649).



philip johnson pro-nazi

1934 - spotlighted photo / caption

Unknown photo agency. (21 December 1934). Captiion: On trail of Huey Long [with photo of Alan Blackburn and Philip Johnson] (above). The Daily Argus (Mount Vernon, New York), presumably p. 18. (Viewed 22 June 2024. S01347).


1934 - other articles

See the articles


1934 - article

(18 December 1934). Two foresake art to found a party; Museum Modernists prepare to go to Louisiana at once to study Huey Long’s ways; Gray shirt their symbol; Young Harvard graduates think politics need more "emotion" and less "intellectualism" [regarding Alan Blackburn and Philip Johnson]. New York Times, p. 23. (Viewed 22 June 2023. S00644).

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1934 - article

(18 December 1934). Two wise men found a party [regarding Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn]. The New York Sun, p. 20. (Viewed 30 May 2024. S01126).

"Led by two very earnest young men, a new Gray Shirt party has entered the field of American politics..." (Excerpt from above.)


1934 - news brief

A. P. (New York). (18 December 1934). Aspiring politicians take Long as model; N. Y. museum executives for form own party [regarding Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn]. The Montreal Daily Star (Canada), p. 16. (Viewed 29 May 2024. S01123).

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1934 - news brief

AP (New York - Dec. 17). (18 December 1934). To Huey for advice [regarding Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn]. St. Joseph Gazette (Missouri), p. 1, col. 2. (Viewed 31 May 2024. S01144).

"Alan Blackburn and Philip Johnson resigned their positions at the Museum of Modern Art today to study Senator Huey Long’s methods and build a private political party..." (Excerpt from above.)


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1934 - news brief

AP (New York, Dec. 18). (18 December 1934). Two New York men to form new party; Resign museum positions to study methods of Senator Huey Long [regarding Alan Blackburn and Philip Johnson].The Daily Argus-Leader (Sioux Falls, South Dakota), p. 2. (Viewed 30 May 2024. S01132).

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1934 - news brief

New York Bureau of The Sun (New York - Dec. 17). (18 December 1934). Quit art for politics and study of Kingfish; Blackburn and Johnson, of Museum of Modern Art in N. Y., to further own party. The Sun (Baltimore, Maryland), p. 3. (Viewed 30 May 2024. S01130).

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1934 - news brief

UP (New York, Dec. 18). (18 December 1934). National party in announced; Being formed by Executive Director of Museum of Modern Art [regarding Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn]. Times-Herald (Olean, New York), p. 1. (Viewed 30 May 2024. S01127).

1934 - news brief

UP (New York - Dec. 18). (18 December 1934). New party founders to study Huey Long [regarding Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn]. Dunkirk Evening Observer (Dunkirk, New York), p. 9. (Viewed 31 May 2024. S01145).

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1934 - news brief

UP (New York, Dec. 18). (18 December 1934). New party is formed; two artists launch "national" party with 100 members [regarding Alan Blackburn and Philip Johnson]. Wichita Eagle (Kansas), p. 7. (Viewed 30 May 2024. S01129).

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1934 - news brief

U. P. (New York - Dec. 18). (18 December 1934). New party is formed with just 2 members [regarding Alan Blackburn and Philip Johnson]. Buffalo Evening News (New York), p. 3. (Viewed 30 May 2024. S01131).

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1934 - news brief

United Press (New York, Dec. 18). (18 December 1934). Two political "adventurers’ form the "National" party [regarding Alan Blackburn and Philip Johnson]. The Binghampton Press (New York), p. 5. (Viewed 30 May 2024. S01128).



1934 - article

(19 December 1934). Artists at politics [regarding Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn aiming to build a political party]. The Sun (Baltimore, Maryland), p. 12. (Viewed 13 June 2024. S01334).

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1934 - article

UP (New York, Dec. 18). (19 December 1934). Leading shirt-nation of world new title given United States [regarding Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn]. Miami Beach Tribune (Florida), p. 6. (Viewed 12 June 2024. S01337).

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1934 - article

U. P. (New York, Dec. 19). (19 December 1934). Gray Shirts organized by idle artists; new political group brings world shirt record to U. S. [regarding Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn]. Marshall Evening Messenger (Marshall, Texas), p. 8. (Viewed 12 June 2024. S01338).

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1934 - news brief

U. P. (New York, Dec. 19). (19 December 1934). National party will be formed; leaders to study policy and personality of Huey Long [regarding Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn]. Columbia Missourian (Columbia, Missouri), p. 4. (Viewed 22 June 2024. S01342).

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1934 - article

Wright, Theon [presumed sic] (United Press). (19 December 1934). Uncle Sam tops again— this time it’s shirts [regarding Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn]. Long Beach Sun (Long Beach, California), p. 1. (Viewed 12 June 2024. S01336).

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1934 - article

Wright, Theron (United Press). (19 December 1934). Gray Shirts, apparently new shirt gang to end all shirt gangs, organized by artists [regarding Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn]. The Great Falls Leader (Great Falls, Montana), p. 3. (Viewed 13 June 2024. S01335).

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1934 - article mention

S. B. H. (20 December 1934). Every day in every way [a presumed recurring column, with mention of Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn starting a new group / political party]. Intelligencer Journal (Lancaster, Pennsylvania), p. 10. (Viewed 22 June 2024. S01339).

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1934 - article

UP (New York, Dec. 19). (20 December 1934). Gray shirts organized by idle artists; New political group brings world shirt record to U. S. [regarding Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn]. The Marshall Morning News (Marshall, Texas), p. 8. (Viewed 22 June 2024. S01343).

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1934 - article

U. P. (New York, Dec. 19). (20 December 1934). U. S. leads all shirt nations; Gray ones added to list of five others now flourishing [regarding Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn]. The Morning Call (Paterson, New Jersey), p. 4.(Viewed 22 June 2024. S01344).

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1934 - article

Wright, Theon [presumed sic] (UP - New York, Dec. 20). (20 December 1934). Gray shirts form party; Members desire to set up a principality in Louisiana [regarding Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn]. Norfolk Ledger-Dispatch (Virginia), p. 4. (Viewed 22 June 2024. S01340).

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1934 - article

Wright, Theon [presumed sic] (UP - New York, Dec. 20). (20 December 1934). Takes head as a shirt-nation; The gray shirt is the sixth and latest to be adopted in the United States [regarding Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn]. The Reidsville Review (Reidsville, North Carolina), p. 12. (Viewed 22 June 2024. S01345).

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1934 - article

Wright, Theon [presumed sic] (United Press - New York, Dec. 19). (20 December 1934). Gray shirts make America no. 1 among shirt-nations [regarding Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn]. Tampa Morning Tribune (Florida), p. 4. (Viewed 22 June 2024. S01346).

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1934 - news brief

AP (New York, Dec. 20). (21 December 1934). Two New York men to form new party [regarding Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn]. Deadwood Pioneer-Times (Deadwood, South Dakota), unknown page number. (Viewed 22 June 2024. S01352).

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1934 - article

Wright, Theon [presumably sic] (UP - New York, Dec. 20). (21 December 1934). New clan in shirt tribe; Gray shirts plan study of Huey Long tactics [regarding Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn]. Wichita Falls Record News (Wichita Falls, Texas), p. 11. (Viewed 22 June 2024. S01354).

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1935 - article

AP (New York) (Feb. 4). (5 February 1935). Huey has full support of National Party, two votes; both members strong for Long because he flashes and goes "boom!" Buffalo Courier Express (New York), p. 1 & p. 3, col. 2. (Viewed 8 December 2023. S00650).

"... The National party, composed of Alan Blackburn and Philip Johnson... made its announcement after a ten-day visit to New Orleans... Blackburn[:]... ’We knew we were Long men as soon as we saw him...’ " (Excerpt from above.)


1935 - article mention - Blackburn

(12 August 1935). Long’s wealth plan to be discussed [by Alan Blackburn, associate of Philip Johnson, at a public meeting of the Queens County Progressive Committee at American Legion Hall, Flushing-Hillcrest]. Long Island Daily Press (Jamaica, New York), p. 5, col. 1. (Viewed 8 December 2023. S00651).

"... Two talking motion pictures, "State of the nation, 1935" and "I’m an American", will be presented. These were prepared by Blackburn." (Excerpt from above.)




Huey Long died on 10 September 1935, two days after being shot in an assassination attempt.



philip johnson nazi philip johnson nazi



1940s

1940 - spotlighted article mention

Kramer, Dale. (1 June 1940). The American fascists [with mentions of Philip Johnson]. Harper’s Magazine, pp. 380-93. (29 May 2024. S00642).

"... the fascist intellectuals, a small but relatively active band... Lawrence Dennis... Philip Johnson... Alan Blackburn... Huey Long... Father Coughlin... Just now Dennis and Johnson have rented office space from which they expect to publish a magazine in line with their views... Friedrich Auhagen... " (p. 391), (Excerpt from above.)


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1942 - article mention

Franken, Jerry. (27 April 1942). Heard and overheard [with mention of Philip Johnson]. PM Daily (New York, NY), p. 23. (Viewed 29 May 2024. S01122).

"Pearson and Allen had a little news for Charles E. Coughlin last night (WJZ 6:30).

Pearson: ’Catholic friends of Father Coughlin have discreetly sounded out the Dept. of Justice about dropping the case against him if he publicly admitted the error of his ways and promised to confine himself to church activities.’

Allen: ’But the Dept. of Justice is doing this; next week Father Coughlin himself is being summoned before the Grand Jury and will be cross-examined regarding two of his mysterious associates, Philip Johnson and Alan Blackburn." ..." (Excerpt from above.)


1942 - PJ’s secretary speaks to FBI

(19 September 1942). Ruth Merrill, regarding Philip Johnson, as reported by Kenneth M. Bierly in New York City. Character of case: Internal security. Federal Bureau of Investigation (NY file no. 100-6004 ITN). (Viewed 4 December 2023.)

"Miss Ruth Merrill, Secretary to subject [Philip Johnson] from 1933 to 1934, stated that about 300 names appeared in list of subject’s Gray Shirts Organization although only about 15 to 20 persons actually attended Gray Shirt meetings. She recalls that JOHNSON wanted to be the ’Hitler’ in this country... " (Excerpt from above, p. 188, at archive.org.)


1946 - spotlighted article mention

Pearson, Drew. (25 October 1946). Drew Pearson [with mention of Philip Johnson’s pro-Nazi, pro-fascist support]. Daily News (Los Angeles), p. 40. (Viewed 8 December 2023. S00645).

"... Rogge says: ’At one time Dennis, Palmer and Philip Johnson were contemplating some sort of publication of their own... ’ ..." (Excerpt from above.)



1946 - other articles

See the articles


1946 - article mention

Pearson, Drew. (25 October 1946). Washington merry-go-round [with mention of Philip Johnson’s pro-Nazi, pro-fascist support]. Press Democrat (Santa Rosa, California), presumably p. 14. (Viewed 8 December 2023. S00646).

1946 - article mention

Pearson, Drew. (25 October 1946). Washington merry-go-round; Pearson reveals how Nazis used magazine [with mention of Philip Johnson’s pro-Nazi, pro-fascist support]. Tulare Advance Register (Tulare, California), p. 6. (Viewed 8 December 2023. S00647).

1946 - article mention

Pearson, Drew. (25 October 1946). Washington merry-go-round; U. S. fooled by propaganda [with mention of Philip Johnson’s pro-Nazi, pro-fascist support]. San Bernardino Sun (California), presumably p. 28. (Viewed 8 December 2023. S00648).

This media compilation is in development.



1960s

1961 - book mentions

Rogge, O. John. (1961). The Official German Report [with mention of Philip Johnson in relation to Lawrence Dennis], pp. 185, 346. Thomas Yoseloff, publisher. (Also search Lawrence Dennis.) (Viewed 9 December 2023. S00652).

[Rogge:] "The book presents the material in my report of September 1946 to the Department of Justice..." (Excerpt from author’s note.) (Excerpt from above.)



1990s


1994 - spotlighted critical biography

Schulze, Franz. (1994). Philip Johnson: Life and work. Alfred A. Knopf (Viewed 4 December 2023. S00594).

"Philip, remembering the Potsdam rally at which he found himself transfixed by the Nazi spectacle and transported by the charisma of Hitler, saw a [national resurgence], an amazing restoration of confidence among the German people... " (Excerpt from above, p. 106.)





1994 - spotlighted book review mention

Freedman, Adele. (10 December 1994). Philip Johnson looms large in new books on architecture [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. The Globe and Mail (Toronto, Canada), p. C16. (Viewed 8 December 2023. S00630).

"... Johnson’s foray into fascism in the thirties is also thoroughly explored, along with his success at living it down... [In 1929] Johnson attended his first Nazi rally, excited by the sight of ’all those blond boys in black leather,’ as he later put it... " (Excerpt from above.)


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1994 - book review mention

Goldberger, Paul. (27 November 1994). The man in the glass house [review of Franz Schulze’s biography on Philip Johnson, with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. New York Times. (Viewed 30 December 2023. S00854).

"... The book deals at great length with the architect’s ghastly political escapades in the 1930’s, when he attempted to form a right-wing political party and flirted with the politics of Hitler, Huey Long and Father Coughlin..." (Excerpt from above.)




See photo of Philip Johnson at his 90th birthday party with... friends, a who’s who of the architectural world, in 1996. (Viewed 4 December 2023. S00591).




1996 - article - 90th birthday party (background context)

Morris, Bob. (9 June 1996). Happy birthday, inevitably [about 90th birthday party for Philip Johnson at MoMA]. New York Times. (Viewed 4 December 2023. S0059 ).


2000s

2005 - spotlighted obituary

Kimball, Roger. (26 January 2005). Philip Johnson, 1906-2005 [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. The New Criterion. (Viewed 2 December 2023. S00558).

"... Johnson’s craving for publicity has assured that the general outlines of his life are well known... Naval intelligence and the FBI put together extensive dossiers on Johnson’s activities, which, when he was drafted later in the war, prevented him from getting a number of preferred jobs. Still, all things considered, it is extraordinary how little Johnson’s political activities hindered his career..." (Excerpt from above.)






2005 - spotlighted article

(28 January 2005). The architect who flirted with fascism; Philip Johnson, who died this week at the age of 98, might be acknowledged as one of the most influential architects of the 20th century, but he never quite lived down his reputation as a Nazi sympathizer. Deutsche Welle (Berlin, Germany). (Viewed 2 December 2023. S00564).

"... ’We forgave, but we didn’t forget,’ Gehry was quoted Wednesday. ’He was so powerful a force for the good in our profession that it overwhelmed all negatives.’ ..." (Excerpt from above.)





2005 - spotlighted op-ed

Stevens, Mark. (31 January 2005). Form follows fascism [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. New York Times. (Viewed 30 November 2023. S00540).

"... As late as 1940, Mr. Johnson was defending Hitler to the American public. It seems that only an inquiry by the Federal Bureau of Investigation— and, presumably, the prospect of being labeled a traitor if America entered the war— led him to withdraw completely from politics.

Philip Johnson now seems like an emblematic figure partly because he appears to have been happily, marvelous, provocatively, disturbingly hollow ..." (Excerpt from above.)





2005 - spotlighted article

Applebaum, Anne. (2 February 2005). "Remembering" Philip Johnson. Washington Post, p. A23. (Viewed 3 December 2023. S00581).

"... We may think we believe any affilation with Nazism is wrong, but as a society, our actual definition of ’collaboration’ is in fact quite slippery.

In the end, I suspect the explanation is simple: People whose gifts lie in esoteric fields get a pass that others don’t. Or, to put it differently, if you use crude language and wear a swastika, you’re a pariah. But if you make up a complex, witty persona, use irony and jokes to brush off hard questions, and construct an elaborate philosophy to obfuscate your past, then you’re an elder statesman, a trendsetter, a provocateur and— most tantalizingly— an enigma." (Excerpt from above.)


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2005 - other articles

See the articles


2005 - article mention

(28 January 2005). Philip Johnson; Authoritative elder statesman of US architecture whose designs moved from modernist minimalism to capitalist flamboyance [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. The Times (London). (Viewed 9 December 2023. S00653).

"PHILIP JOHNSON was an unlikely figure to be the godfather of contemporary American architecture... was as famous for his high cultural disdain for the masses and his flirtation with Nazism as for the buildings that he designed...

Occasionally the publicity could backfire, however: a 1993 BBC documentary showed Johnson sipping wine in the Four Seasons and talking of his political past to the loud accompaniment of an excerpt from Götterdämmerung..." (Excerpt from above.)




2005 - article

Nossiter, Adam (Associated Press - Baton Rouge, LA). (31 January 2005). Ambitious outsider found Long unwilling to be manipulated [about Philip Johnson, his recent death, his admiration for Huey Long and Adolph Hitler]. The News-Star (Monroe, Louisiana), p. 8A. (Viewed 9 May 2024. S01089).

"... [Johnson] went on to make elaborate apology for his Hitlerian sympathies— and to design legions of landmarks that, in their cold grandiosity, for some critics recalled them nonetheless, to the day he died..." (Excerpt from above.)


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2005 - article

Nossiter, Adam (Associated Press - Baton Rouge, LA). (31 January 2005). Architectural icon meets the Kingfish in ’35 [about Philip Johnson, his recent death, his admiration for Huey Long and Adolph Hitler]. Daily World (Opelousas, Louisiana), p. 4A. (Viewed 9 May 2024. S01088).

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2005 - article

Nossiter, Adam (Associated Press - Baton Rouge, LA). (2 February 2005). Obscure Huey Long link extinguished [about Philip Johnson, his recent death, his admiration for Huey Long and Adolph Hitler]. The Daily Review (Morgan City, Louisiana), p. 4. (Viewed 3 December 2023. S00574).

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2005 - article

Applebaum, Anne (Washington Post). (3 February 2005). Bricks bounce off the glass house [starting in the fourth paragraph, about Philip Johnson, his death, and his pro-Nazi support past]. The Commercial Appeal (Memphis, Tennessee), p. B6. (Viewed 3 December 2023. S00587).

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2005 - article

Applebaum, Anne (Washington Post). (3 February 2005). Cultural sheen obscures fascist ways [starting in the fourth paragraph, about Philip Johnson, his death, and his pro-Nazi support past]. Valley News (West Lebanon, New Hampshire), p. A6. (Viewed 3 December 2023. S00575).

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2005 - article

Applebaum, Anne (Washington Post). (3 February 2005). A prince, an architect and fascism’s escape [starting in the fourth paragraph, about Philip Johnson, his death, and his pro-Nazi support past]. Journal and Courier (Lafayette, Indiana), p. A5. (Viewed 3 December 2023. S00576).

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2005 - article

Applebaum, Anne (Washington Post). (3 February 2005). "Remembering" Philip Johnson [starting in the fourth paragraph, about Philip Johnson, his death, and his pro-Nazi support past]. St. Petersburg Times (Florida), p. 11A. (Viewed 3 December 2023. S00577).

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2005 - article mention

Friedman, Roberto. (3 February 2005). You’re our compensation; Readers, pols, models put out for Out There [with mention of Philip Johnson]. Bay Area Reporter (gay newspaper, San Francisco, CA), p. 26. (Viewed 9 May 2024. S01090).

"... Oh, but there’s so much to throw tantrums over. Queer old coot architect Philip Johnson dies, his Nazi sympathies glossed over... " (Excerpt from above.)




2005 - editorial

(4 February 2005). Toast [about the obituaries on Philip Johnson]. Richmond Times-Dispatch (Virginia), p. A14. (Viewed 3 December 2023. S00588).

"... Most of the tributes either breezed by or failed to mention a telling aspect of Johnson’s life. During the Thirties he was a fascist— and not just of the garden-variety... " (Excerpt from above.)


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2005 - article

Applebaum, Anne (Washington Post). (4 February 2005). "Remembering" Philip Johnson’s past [starting in the fourth paragraph, about Philip Johnson, his death, and his pro-Nazi support past]. Daily Hampshire Gazette (Northampton, Massachusetts), p. A6. (Viewed 3 December 2023. S00589).

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2005 - article

Applebaum, Anne (Washington Post). (5 February 2005). Trendsetters get a pass on embracing fascism [starting in the fourth paragraph, about Philip Johnson, his death, and his pro-Nazi support past]. Tallahassee Democrat (Florida), p. 4E. (Viewed 3 December 2023. S00590).

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2005 - letter to editor

Moore, Steven M. (5 February 2005). The Observer forum: "Architect’s Nazism can’t be ignored" ["In response to ’Designs of his time’ (Jan. 29):..."]. The Charlotte Observer (North Carolina), p. 10A. (Viewed 5 December 2023. S00599).

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2005 - article

Applebaum, Anne (Washington Post). (6 February 2005). The art of sympathies with the Nazis [starting in the fourth paragraph, about Philip Johnson, his death, and his pro-Nazi support past]. The News and Observer (Charlotte, North Carolina), p. 29A. (Viewed 5 December 2023. S00598).

"... Asked in 1993, whether he would have built buildings for Adolph Hitler in 1936, he answered, ’Who’s to say? That would have tempted anyone’ ..." (Excerpt from above.)


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2005 - article

Applebaum, Anne (Washington Post). (10 February 2005). Architect got a pass on fascist sympathies [starting in the fourth paragraph, about Philip Johnson, his death, and his pro-Nazi support past]. Richmond Times-Dispatch (Virginia), p. A15. (Viewed 5 December 2023. S00600).

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2005 - article mention

Huxtable, Ada Louise. (10 February 2005). Philip Johnson: Short of attention span, long on aesthetics. Wall Street Journal, p. D10. (Viewed 9 May 2024. S00579).

"Philip Johnson used to say that what he really wanted to be was "l’architecte du roi," the king’s architect. That was after his ideological fling with the Nazis (Hitler already had his architect, Albert Speer), and before he became the architect of choice of big business...

... His infatuation with Nazi Germany was excused publicly as youthful folly..." (Excerpt from above.)


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2005 - article mention

Crosbie, Michael J. (13 February 2005). Style is never enough [about Philip Johnson, his death, and mention of his pro-Nazi support past]. Hartford Courant (Connecticut), p. C4. (Viewed 9 May 2024. S01091).

"... In fact, the love of style over substance was at the heart of Johnson’s fascination with fascism. Johnson’s attraction to Nazism was more a romance than a flirtation, complete with several visits to Germany as the Nazis’ guest. Johnson reveled in the pornographic displays of power at a 1938 Nuremberg rally..." (Excerpt from above.)


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2005 - article mentions

(16 November 2005). On criticism (including interviews of Michael Sorkin; introductory paragraph: "[He took] Philip Johnson to task for his Nazi past..."; and Deyan Sudjic). The Architect’s Newspaper (New York). (Viewed 5 December 2023. S00601).

Question: Have you ever regretted a piece you’ve written?

Sudjic: I certainly regretted some headlines. By far the worst was for my obituary of Philip Johnson for which some bright spark came up with "A Nazi piece of work." There’s no going back from that one! ... "(Excerpt from above.)




2006 articles

See the articles


2006 - article

Wise, Michael Z. (20 October 2006). Deconstructing Philip [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. Forward website. (Viewed 2 December 2023. S00563).

"When the synagogue that Philip Johnson designed free of charge to atone for his antisemitic past added a canopy over its entry two decades ago, the celebrated architect complained that the vinyl overhang was a blot on his creation... " (Excerpt from above.)


2006 - article mention

Leigh, Catesby. (4 December 2006). Philip Johnson [with mention of his pro-Nazi support]. Washington Examiner. (Viewed 7 December 2023. S00624).

"... Schulze’s account of Johnson’s Nazi activities at the time of the German attack on Poland suggests that this egotist was rather too adept at insulating himself from unpleasant realities..." (Excerpt from above.)




2007 articles

See the articles


2007 - article mention

Eyman, Scott. (13 May 2007). A genius for detail; onetime "Vogue" and "Vanity Fair" editor Leo Lerman’s journals offer an inside look at artists and intellectuals of mid-century America [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. The Palm Beach Post (Florida), p. 4J. (Viewed 7 December 2023. S00554).

"... Mostly, Lerman was a habitual enthusiast, but one of the few people he disliked was the architect Philip Johnson, whom he characterizes as ’mad’ about Israel— the war spirit, the military feeling. This is what made him so partial to the Nazis..." (Excerpt from above.)


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2007 - article mention

Russell, James S. (Bloomberg News). (20 May 2007). Philip Johnson glass house opens to public; Architect embraced many differing styles over his career [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. The Morning Call (Allentown, PA), p. G9. (Viewed 7 December 2023. S00586).

"... Johnson had spent the intervening time... writing approving dispatches from Nazi Germany early in World War II... " (Excerpt from above.)


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2010s

2011 articles

See the articles


2011 - article mention

Lamster, Mark. (9 June 2011). Philip Johnson’s synagogue problem [with mention of his pro-Nazi support]. Design Observer website. (Viewed 2 December 2023. S00565).

"In the mid-1950s, Philip Johnson designed a synagogue for Kneses Tifereth Israel, a congregation in suburban Port Chester, New York. Johnson, in the 1930s and early 1940s, had been a proponent of Nazi Germany and a writer of anti-semitic tracts, so the job was presented as a kind of atonement, and completed without fee... " (Excerpt from above.)




2011 - article mention

Stoelker, Tom. (6 December 2011). Glass House: New play explores fascistic Modernism [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. The Architect’s Newspaper. (Viewed 7 December 2023. S00623).

"... In a not so subtle manner, the author equates Johnson’s well documented Nazi sympathies of his early years to modernism itself: ’When you have an extreme interest in how things should be to be beautiful, there’s an element of fascism to it, and that can transfer to a home when dishes need to be loaded properly.’ ..." (Excerpt from above.)




2012 - article

Lamster, Mark. (29 February 2012). Philip Johnson (1906-2005) [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. Architectural Review (London). (Viewed 5 December 2023. S00602).

"With Philip Johnson one can hardly speak of the term reputation in the singular; I know of no other architect who has had so many of them, or more contradictory ones...

In his prodigal years of the 1930s, he hoped to apply that power not in the field of architecture, but politics. He left MoMA, in 1934, and became a tireless advocate for a series of loathsome right-wing figures, including Hitler..." (Excerpt from above.)


2014 - spotlighted article - with FBI report on Philip Johnson

Novak, Matt. (22 April 2014). One of America’s most famous architects was a Nazi propagandist [with embedded FBI file on Philip Johnson]. Paleofuture website. (2 December 2023. S00561).





2014 - spotlighted article - with FBI file on Philip Johnson

Heddaya, Mostafa. (22 April 2014). Philip Johnson’s pro-Nazi sympathies detailed in FBI file [with the FBI file embedded]. Hyperallergic website. (Viewed 2 December 2023. S00560).

"... [the Paleofuture blog] obtained [the FBI file on Philip Johnson] via Freedom of Information Act request. The file, which comprises 171 pages of letters, memoranda, and other documents detailing the architect’s public and private life, reignites the discussion over his controversial Nazi sympathies at a time of intense public interest in the fate of some of his work..." (Excerpt from above.)






2014 - other articles

See the articles


2014 - article - with FBI file on Philip Johnson

Novak, Matt. (22 April 2014). One of America’s most famous architects [Philip Johnson] was a Nazi propagandist [with embedded copy of presumably confirmed, declassified FBI report]. Gizmodo. (Viewed 30 November 2023. S00541).



2014 - article

Brussat, David. (23 April 2014). Philip Johnson’s Nazi decade [regarding public release of Johnson’s FBI report put online]. Architecture Here and There website. (Viewed 7 December 2023. S00622).

"... Yes, the renowned Philip Johnson was— shhh!— a Nazi... Bringing it up is the most annoying sort of faux pas..." (Excerpt from above.)








2016 - spotlighted book mentions

Wortman, Marc. (2016). 1941 Fighting the shadow war; A divided America in a world at war [with mentions of Philip Johnson and his pro-Nazi support throughout the book; photo of Johnson among others on the cover], pp. 409. Grove Press. (Viewed 3 December 2023. S00566).

Chapter 2: A new world; America and Germany, 1939-1940 - "For Philip Johnson, following the German army as it wiped out the last resisters in Poland seemed like he was living within a dream... " (Excerpt from above.)





2016 - spotlighted book excerpt

Wortman, Marc. (4 April 2016). Famed architect Philip Johnson’s hidden Nazi past [adapted excerpt of book]. Vanity Fair magazine. (Viewed 2 December 2023. S00556).

"Philip Johnson was a pedigreed, witty charmer from Cleveland who became a fixture of Manhattan’s art world and social circuit. But before Johnson’s rise to fame as one of America’s most influential architects, he delighted in another rise— that of Hitler and the Third Reich. In his forthcoming book, 1941: Fighting the Shadow War, Marc Wortman explores the architect’s fascination with Nazism." (Excerpt from above.)



2016 - other articles

See the articles


2016 - article

(18 April 2016). A new book [by Marc Wortman] explains the architect Philip Johnson’s hidden Nazi past. Metalocus (Madrid, Spain). (Viewed 8 May 2024. S01086).

’... The author claims Johnson took no issue with the Nazi’s treatment of Jews or creators of "degenerate art", even when he helped friends at the Bauhaus flee Germany is understand as "the apparent contradiction in their plight only as a momentary falling back in order to leap that much further ahead. "he saw the apparent contradiction in their plight only as a momentary falling back in order to leap that much further ahead." ...’ (Excerpt from above.)


2016 - article

McKnight, Jenna. (18 April 2016). Architect Philip Johnson’s Nazi past detailed in new book. Dezeen. (Viewed 2 December 2023. S00559).

"Pritzker Prize-winning architect Philip Johnson was an impassioned supporter of Nazism, in which he found a "new international ideal", according to a new book by American journalist Marc Wortman..." (Excerpt from above.)




2016 - article

Sisson, Patrick. (19 April 2016). Philip Johnson’s pro-fascist past revisited in new book. Curbed.com. (Viewed 5 December 2023. S00603).

2016 - article

Hurowitz, Richard. (26 September 2016). Don’t forget Philip Johnson’s Nazi past; In 1932, as a rising star at the Museum of Modern Art, Johnson attended a Hitler Youth rally at Potsdam. Jerusalem Post. (Viewed 2 December 2023. S00562).



2016 - article

Ofgang, Erik. (28 November 2016). The hidden Nazi past of famed architect Philip Johnson. CT Insider news website (Connecticut). (Viewed 14 December 2023. S00711).

"... ’He was a fervent and committed Nazi and very possibly a German agent working in the United States on behalf of the fascist government of Germany,’ says Marc Wortman, the New Haven-based author of 1941: Fighting the shadow war— A divided America in a world at war..." (Excerpt from above.)


2016 - article

Ofgang, Erik. (28 November 2016). The hidden Nazi past of famed architect Philip Johnson. Connecticut Post (Bridgeport, CT). (Viewed 14 December 2023. S00710).

2016 - article

Ofgang, Erik. (28 November 2016). The hidden Nazi past of famed architect Philip Johnson. Greenwich Time newspaper (Greenwich, CT). (Viewed 14 December 2023. S00712).

2016 - article

Ofgang, Erik. (28 November 2016). The hidden Nazi past of famed architect Philip Johnson. The Hour newspaper (Norwalk, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00713).

2016 - article

Ofgang, Erik. (28 November 2016). The hidden Nazi past of famed architect Philip Johnson. Middletown Press (Middletown, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00827).

2016 - article

Ofgang, Erik. (28 November 2016). The hidden Nazi past of famed architect Philip Johnson. The Milford Mirror (Milford, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00828).

2016 - article

Ofgang, Erik. (28 November 2016). The hidden Nazi past of famed architect Philip Johnson. The New Canaan Advertiser (New Canaan, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00829).

2016 - article

Ofgang, Erik. (28 November 2016). The hidden Nazi past of famed architect Philip Johnson. New Haven Register (New Haven, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00830).

2016 - article

Ofgang, Erik. (28 November 2016). The hidden Nazi past of famed architect Philip Johnson. The News-Times (Danbury, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00831).

2016 - article

Ofgang, Erik. (28 November 2016). The hidden Nazi past of famed architect Philip Johnson. The Register Citizen (Torrington, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00832).

2016 - article

Ofgang, Erik. (28 November 2016). The hidden Nazi past of famed architect Philip Johnson. The Ridgefield Press (Ridgefield, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00833).

2016 - article

Ofgang, Erik. (28 November 2016). The hidden Nazi past of famed architect Philip Johnson. Shelton Herald (Shelton, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00834).

2016 - article

Ofgang, Erik. (28 November 2016). The hidden Nazi past of famed architect Philip Johnson. Stamford Advocate (Stamford, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00835).

2016 - article

Ofgang, Erik. (28 November 2016). The hidden Nazi past of famed architect Philip Johnson. Trumbull Times (Trumbull, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00836).

2016 - article

Ofgang, Erik. (28 November 2016). The hidden Nazi past of famed architect Philip Johnson. Wilton Bulletin (Wilton, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00837).



2017 articles

See the articles


2017 - article mention

Tortolano, Jim. (14 April 2017). The glass houses of Philip Johnson [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. Orange County Tribune (California). (Viewed 6 December 2023. S00620).

"... His work carried him to Nazi Germany, where he watched, with approval, a large rally in Nuremberg where Hitler was the chief speaker. In 1939, he went into Germany for the invasion of Poland... " (Excerpt from above.)




2017 - article mention

Sayer, Jason. (11 August 2017). FBI files, a missing MoMA house, and the life of modernist architect Gregory Ain [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. The Architect’s Newspaper (New York). (Viewed 6 December 2023. S00621).

".. In 1950, Philip Johnson, who the F.B.I. was also monitoring due to his supposed connections to the Nazi Party... " (Excerpt from above.)








2018 - biography

Lamster, Mark. (2018). The man in the glass house: Philip Johnson, architect of the Modern century. Little, Brown and Company. (Viewed 30 November 2023).




2018 - spotlighted interview of biographer Mark Lamster

Fixsen, Anna. (3 December 2018). The power and paradox of Philip Johnson [interview of Mark Lamster regarding his biography The Man in the Glass House: Philip Johnson, Architect of the Modern Century]. Metropolis. (Viewed 31 May 2024. S01134).

[Fixsen:] ... Do you think he fully believed it?

[Lamster:] Oh, he fully believed it. It wasn’t play. Afterwards he would try and justify it as a sort of youthful indiscretion and a homoerotic affectation. But he was invested. He was invested in the actual eugenic theory, anti-Semitism. He was all-in for the complete bag of Nazi awfulness. This was not an aesthetic attraction, it was a full-bore intellectual agreement..." (Excerpt from above.)


2018 - spotlighted interview of Johnson biographer Mark Lamster

Pedersen, Martin C. (24 October 2018). Mark Lamster on his new biography of Philip Johnson [largely regarding his pro-Nazi support]. Common Edge website. (Viewed 30 November 2023. S00545).

Pedersen: "What’s amazing is, Johnson somehow moves past that. Talk about his ability to completely reinvent himself, from probable Nazi spy to the dean of American architecture. It’s just mind boggling."

Lamster: "It is. But he had powerful friends. He had friends who always cared about him. He was smart and opportunistic. And in the post-war years, people didn’t really want to talk about that past. They wanted to move on." (Excerpt from above.)


2018 - spotlighted book review

Lenfield, Spencer Lee. (November - December 2018). The devil and Philip Johnson; A "star-chitect" as P. T. Barnum [review of Mark Lamster’s book The man in the glass house (2018)]. Harvard Magazine. (Viewed 19 December 2023. ).

"... There are two schools of thought on Johnson’s dalliances with the Nazis... One holds that these mistakes pollute everything he ever did or touched, and that Johnson never fully repented; the other, that his merits as designer and architect can be separated from his youthful errors, and his gestures of contrition in later years...

... Influence acknowledged, the further question is whether that influence on architecture was for good or for ill— and whether the history of Johnson’s political beliefs affects that question...

... If we accept that Johnson was an enthusiastic fascist in the 1930s, how should we look at his buildings? ..." (Excerpt from above.)



2018 - other articles

See the articles


2018 - letter to the editor

Chrostowski, Ed. (5 April 2018). Letter: Philip Johnson was an architect and activist [with mention of his pro-Nazi support]. The Ridgefield Press (Ridgefield, CT). (Viewed 6 December 2023. S00615).

"... None of this, however, obviates his abominable behavior in the years leading to World War II and the Holocaust, when he was an enthusiastic cheerleader for Adolf Hitler and an active supporter of Nazi bigotry and ’master race’ supremacy.

Nor does it excuse his failure to apologize and recant after the war..." (Excerpt from above.)


2018 - letter to the editor

Chrostowski, Ed (via Ridgefield Press). (5 April 2018). Letter: Philip Johnson was an architect and activist [with mention of his pro-Nazi support]. Connecticut Post (Bridgeport, CT). (Viewed 5 December 2023. S00605).

2018 - letter to the editor

Chrostowski, Ed (via Ridgefield Press). (5 April 2018). Letter: Philip Johnson was an architect and activist [with mention of his pro-Nazi support]. Greenwich Time newspaper (Greenwich, CT). (Viewed 5 December 2023. S00606).

2018 - letter to the editor

Chrostowski, Ed (via Ridgefield Press). (5 April 2018). Letter: Philip Johnson was an architect and activist [with mention of his pro-Nazi support]. The Hour newspaper (Norwalk, CT). (Viewed 5 December 2023. S00607).

2018 - letter to the editor

Chrostowski, Ed (via Ridgefield Press). (5 April 2018). Letter: Philip Johnson was an architect and activist [with mention of his pro-Nazi support]. Middletown Press (Middletown, CT). (Viewed 5 December 2023. S00608).

2018 - letter to the editor

Chrostowski, Ed (via Ridgefield Press). (5 April 2018). Letter: Philip Johnson was an architect and activist [with mention of his pro-Nazi support]. The Milford Mirror (Milford, CT). (Viewed 5 December 2023. S00609).

2018 - letter to the editor

Chrostowski, Ed (via Ridgefield Press). (5 April 2018). Letter: Philip Johnson was an architect and activist [with mention of his pro-Nazi support]. The New Canaan Advertiser (New Canaan, CT). (Viewed 5 December 2023. S00610).

2018 - letter to the editor

Chrostowski, Ed (via Ridgefield Press). (5 April 2018). Letter: Philip Johnson was an architect and activist [with mention of his pro-Nazi support]. New Haven Register (New Haven, CT). (Viewed 5 December 2023. S00611).

2018 - letter to the editor

Chrostowski, Ed (via Ridgefield Press). (5 April 2018). Letter: Philip Johnson was an architect and activist [with mention of his pro-Nazi support]. News-Times (Danbury, Connecticut). (Viewed 5 December 2023. S00604).

2018 - letter to the editor

Chrostowski, Ed (via Ridgefield Press). (5 April 2018). Letter: Philip Johnson was an architect and activist [with mention of his pro-Nazi support]. The Register Citizen (Torrington, CT). (Viewed 6 December 2023. S00614).

2018 - letter to the editor

Chrostowski, Ed (via Ridgefield Press). (5 April 2018). Letter: Philip Johnson was an architect and activist [with mention of his pro-Nazi support]. Shelton Herald (Shelton, CT). (Viewed 6 December 2023. S00616).

2018 - letter to the editor

Chrostowski, Ed (via Ridgefield Press). (5 April 2018). Letter: Philip Johnson was an architect and activist [with mention of his pro-Nazi support]. Stamford Advocate (Stamford, CT). (Viewed 6 December 2023. S00617).

2018 - letter to the editor

Chrostowski, Ed (via Ridgefield Press). (5 April 2018). Letter: Philip Johnson was an architect and activist [with mention of his pro-Nazi support]. Trumbull Times (Trumbull, CT). (Viewed 6 December 2023. S00618).

2018 - letter to the editor

Chrostowski, Ed (via Ridgefield Press). (5 April 2018). Letter: Philip Johnson was an architect and activist [with mention of his pro-Nazi support]. Wilton Bulletin (Wilton, CT). (Viewed 6 December 2023. S00619).

2018 - adapted book excerpt

Lamster, Mark. (31 October 2018). Was architect Philip Johnson a Nazi spy? New York magazine. (Viewed 30 November 2023. S00548).

"... Was Johnson a willing victim of the German propaganda machine or something far more sinister: the Nazi spy Shirer believed him to be? ..." (Excerpt from above.)




2018 - article

Blasius, Elizabeth. (6 November 2018). Just how much of a Nazi was Philip Johnson? ["Mark Lamster’s new book The man in the glass house includes new bits of information about Philip Johnson’s infatuation with fascism."] The Architect’s Newspaper (New York). (Viewed 4 December 2023. S00596).

"’I’m a whore,’ Johnson was known to proclaim... Johnson has proved to be American architecture and design’s most storied strumpet. He played whatever role he wished without much consequence..." (Excerpt from above.)




2018 - interview of Johnson biographer Mark Lamster

Pedersen, Martin. (8 November 2018). Philip Johnson: A complicated, reprehensible history [interview of biographer Mark Lamster; largely regarding his pro-Nazi support]. ArchDaily website. (Viewed 30 November 2023. S00544).



2018 - article mention

(12 November 2018). Check out the best architecture book releases of the fall The Architect’s Newspaper (New York). (Viewed 31 May 2024. S01133).

"... The Man in the Glass House: Philip Johnson, Architect of the Modern Century; Mark Lamster... Nine years in the making, Lamster’s deep dive into the life and career of Philip Johnson pays off in spades. Johnson is presented as a quintessential American architect and a walking mess of contradictions throughout the book; a populist born to an upper-class family who was a millionaire before the age of 25, a gay man who fervently supported the Nazis..." (Excerpt from above.)




2019 - articles

See the articles


2019 - article mention

Wagner, Kate. (29 January 2019). The Boys’ Club; On the myths and enigmas of Philip Johnson’s life and of a supposedly egalitarian architectural culture. The Nation. (Viewed 8 May 2024. S01087).

’... later expanded beyond the American scene to include trips to Nazi Germany (he even spent time in Poland as a “journalist” during the early days of the German invasion) and, later, the circulation of Nazi propaganda in the United States as an unpaid agent of the German state...’ (Excerpt from above.)




2019 - article

(14 February 2019). The dark side of Philip Johnson: how the famous architect helped the Nazis in WW II; Johnson has buildings in cities across Canada, U.S.— including Toronto’s CBC Broadcasting Centre [interview of biographer Mark Lamster]. CBC Radio (Canada). (Viewed 30 November 2023. S00546).



2019 - book review mention

Miranda, Carolina A. (5 April 2019). Review: An engaging biography records the polemical life of architect Philip Johnson [review of Lamster’s biography; with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. Los Angeles Times. (Viewed 30 December 2023. S00853).

"... In the 1930s, as a young man, he also had a ’flirtation’ with Nazi politics, as some of his obituaries, in 2005, gingerly put it. In actuality, he was kissing Nazism full on the mouth... " (Excerpt from above.)




2019 - article mention

Garrow, Matt. (24 July 2019). 10 famous people who were Nazi sympathizers [#2 Philip Johnson]. listverse.com. (Viewed 30 November 2023. S00547).



2020s

2020 - spotlighted article

Bernstein, Fred A. (4 December 2020). MoMA and Harvard GSD Respond to activists’ call to remove Philip Johnson’s name. Architectural Record. (Viewed 29 May 2024. S01120).

"The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) and Harvard’s Graduate School of Design (GSD) have responded to a November 27th letter demanding that they remove Philip Johnson’s name from every “leadership title, public space or honorific” at those institutions because of his racist and white supremacist activities..." (Excerpt from above.)



2020 - other articles

See the articles


2020 - article

(3 August 2020). Design Archives: Philip Johnson, 1906-2005; The life and work of the controversial American architect is the subject of a lavish new monograph [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. Homes & Interiors Scotland (Viewed 3 December 2023. S00567).

"... In the 1930s, however, his mind was on darker matters and he became involved with fascism. He was a frequent visitor to Germany during this period and even attended Nazi rallies, admitting to getting ’swept up’ in the ’spectacle’— ironic, given that the Bauhaus approach to teaching and creativity was despised by the Nazis, and that Mies and Gropius would be forced to flee to the States as the situation in Europe deteriorated... " (Excerpt from above.)




2020 - article

Dafoe, Taylor. (2 December 2020). Prominent architects are calling on MoMA to remove Philip Johnson’s name from its walls over his ties to fascism; Seven of the 10 architects in an upcoming exhibition at the museum were among the signatories of an open letter. artnet.com. (Viewed 30 November 2023. S00543).



2020 - article

Ludel, Wallace. (4 December 2020). Artists and architects ask MoMA and other institutions to remove Philip Johnson’s name citing his racist views; The famous architect attended Nazi rallies in his youth and openly made anti-Semitic and white supremacist comments. Art Newspaper. (Viewed 29 May 2024. S01121).



2020 - article

Pitcher, Greg. (10 December 2020). Harvard drops association with "white supremacist" Philip Johnson. Architect’s Journal (UK). (Viewed 19 December 2023. S00773).



2021 - spotlighted article

Adams, Michael Henry. (21 March 2021). MoMA wants to cancel Philip Johnson— many who knew him do not. The Guardian (London). (Viewed 3 December 2023. S00571).

"... In the grill at the Four Seasons he remembered how, back from Germany in 1934, he made a fateful jaunt to Harlem’s Club Hot-Cha. On seeing the elegant African American singer Jimmie Daniels, Johnson said, he determined to make the beautiful youth his lover.

Johnson could be exceedingly charming. But had he really repented? His Jewish friends and Black employees thought so. So do I..." (Excerpt from above.)


2021 - spotlighted article, with video of TV news broadcast (above)

Lyden, Tom. (8 February 2021). Glass houses: Designer [Philip Johnson] of IDS Center [Minneapolis] was Nazi sympathizer. FOX 9 news (KMSP) (Minneapolis, Minnesota). (Viewed 30 November 2023. S00539).

"Nearly 50 years ago, the IDS Center became the star of the Minneapolis skyline. At 57-stories it remains the city’s tallest building.

For the man who designed it, architect Philip Johnson, it was also a breakthrough...

’We can’t sugar coat it. He was quite simply a devoted fascist for eight years,’ said historian Marc Wortman, who included Johnson in his book, ’1941: Fighting the Shadow War,’ which traces America’s entry into World War II...

’He envisioned himself as an American Fuhrer,’ said architectural critic Mark Lamster, who wrote a meticulously documented biography of Johnson, ’The Man In The Glass House.’ ... "(Excerpt from above.)



2021 - other articles

See the articles


2021 - article

Dafoe, Taylor. (2 March 2021). A black design collective will temporarily obscure architect and Nazi sympathizer Philip Johnson’s name from a gallery at MoMA. artnet.com. (Viewed 30 November 2023. S00542).



2021 - article mention

Berg, Nate. (15 March 2021). Architecture has a racist past. These artists radically reimagined it; A new MOMA exhibit explores architecture and Blackness [with mention of "Nazi sympathizer Philip Johnson"]. Fast Company. (Viewed 9 December 2023. S00654).



2021 - article

Greenberger, Alex. (25 March 2021). MoMA’s Philip Johnson problem: How to address the architect’s legacy? ARTnews. (Viewed 3 December 2023. S00572).

".. Lamster, the Johnson biographer, said that, because of Johnson’s outsized influence at the museum, it would be nearly impossible for MoMA to scrub him from its history. ’To cancel Philip Johnson is to cancel MoMA,’ Lamster said. That does not mean that the moment isn’t ripe for reflection, Lamster continued. ’There is no canceling Philip Johnson. He’s already dead— that’s as canceled as you can get. The question is how you understand his legacy. If canceling means we don’t grapple with that history, that’s a big mistake. If canceling means removing his name, that’s a different story’ ..." (Excerpt from above.)




2021 - article mention

Whyte, Murray. (28 March 2021). What if cities were built for Blackness? [With mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support, in an odd review of a race-oriented exhibition...]. Boston Globe, presumably p. N1. (Viewed 7 December 2023. Q00556).

"... The collective asked the museum to remove Johnson’s stamp from the space, given his history as a Nazi associate and his gatekeeping role... " (Excerpt from above.)


  • Search worldcat.org for locations, or contact area public library.



2021 - article mention

Lang, Joel. (23 May 2021). Artist David Hartt wants to create a "salon" for Black artists at the Glass House in New Canaan [with mention of Johnson and his 1930s support for fascism]. Connecticut Post (Bridgeport, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00838).

"... [At MoMA] The exhibit happens to be in rooms named for Johnson, who became a subject of controversy because of his fascist and white supremacist opinions in the 1930s. They were not just passive; Johnson became so politically active that by 1940 the FBI kept a file on him for possible sedition, according to a 2018 biography..." (Excerpt from above.)


2021 - article

Lang, Joel. (23 May 2021). Artist David Hartt wants to create a "salon" for Black artists at the Glass House in New Canaan [with mention of Johnson and his 1930s support for fascism]. CTInsider news website (Connecticut). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00839).

2021 - article

Lang, Joel. (23 May 2021). Artist David Hartt wants to create a "salon" for Black artists at the Glass House in New Canaan [with mention of Johnson and his 1930s support for fascism]. Greenwich Time newspaper (Greenwich, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00840).

2021 - article

Lang, Joel. (23 May 2021). Artist David Hartt wants to create a "salon" for Black artists at the Glass House in New Canaan [with mention of Johnson and his 1930s support for fascism]. The Hour newspaper (Norwalk, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00841).

2021 - article

Lang, Joel. (23 May 2021). Artist David Hartt wants to create a "salon" for Black artists at the Glass House in New Canaan [with mention of Johnson and his 1930s support for fascism]. Middletown Press (Middletown, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00842).

2021 - article

Lang, Joel. (23 May 2021). Artist David Hartt wants to create a "salon" for Black artists at the Glass House in New Canaan [with mention of Johnson and his 1930s support for fascism]. The Milford Mirror (Milford, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00843).

2021 - article

Lang, Joel. (23 May 2021). Artist David Hartt wants to create a "salon" for Black artists at the Glass House in New Canaan [with mention of Johnson and his 1930s support for fascism]. The New Canaan Advertiser (New Canaan, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00844).

2021 - article

Lang, Joel. (23 May 2021). Artist David Hartt wants to create a "salon" for Black artists at the Glass House in New Canaan [with mention of Johnson and his 1930s support for fascism]. New Haven Register (New Haven, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00845).

2021 - article

Lang, Joel. (23 May 2021). Artist David Hartt wants to create a "salon" for Black artists at the Glass House in New Canaan [with mention of Johnson and his 1930s support for fascism]. The News-Times (Danbury, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00846).

2021 - article

Lang, Joel. (23 May 2021). Artist David Hartt wants to create a "salon" for Black artists at the Glass House in New Canaan [with mention of Johnson and his 1930s support for fascism]. The Register Citizen (Torrington, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00847).

2021 - article

Lang, Joel. (23 May 2021). Artist David Hartt wants to create a "salon" for Black artists at the Glass House in New Canaan [with mention of Johnson and his 1930s support for fascism]. The Ridgefield Press (Ridgefield, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00848).

2021 - article

Lang, Joel. (23 May 2021). Artist David Hartt wants to create a "salon" for Black artists at the Glass House in New Canaan [with mention of Johnson and his 1930s support for fascism]. Shelton Herald (Shelton, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00849).

2021 - article

Lang, Joel. (23 May 2021). Artist David Hartt wants to create a "salon" for Black artists at the Glass House in New Canaan [with mention of Johnson and his 1930s support for fascism]. Stamford Advocate (Stamford, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00850).

2021 - article

Lang, Joel. (23 May 2021). Artist David Hartt wants to create a "salon" for Black artists at the Glass House in New Canaan [with mention of Johnson and his 1930s support for fascism]. Trumbull Times (Trumbull, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00851).

2021 - article

Lang, Joel. (23 May 2021). Artist David Hartt wants to create a "salon" for Black artists at the Glass House in New Canaan [with mention of Johnson and his 1930s support for fascism]. Wilton Bulletin (Wilton, CT). (Viewed 22 December 2023. S00852).



2022 - spotlighted article

Stewart, Carolyn. (10 October 2022). America’s Nazi architect; He was a brilliant creative and a fixture in New York’s art scene. In wrestling with Philip Johnson’s legacy, there’s opportunity and serious responsibility. American Purpose website. (Viewed 3 December 2023. S00568).

"Before I could raise the topic, another visitor [of the Glass House] beat me to it. Visibly tense, he asked the tour guide why the tour avoided any mention of Johnson’s connection to the Nazis. A few others in the group nodded their heads in agreement. The tour guide looked a touch sheepish and said, with a shoulder shrug, that the Glass House is still closely tied to Johnson’s surviving friends and mentees...

Let’s contextualize Philip Johnson, not cancel him. By acknowledging the architect’s disgraceful past, we can put his legacy to work for the greater good..." (Excerpt from above.)



2022 - other articles

See the articles


2022 - article mention

Duffield, Grace. (27 April 2022). "Colored garden" named ’provocatively’ to confront New Canaan’s Glass House’s past and future [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. Connecticut Post (Bridgeport, CT). (Viewed 9 December 2023. S00655).

"... Glass House staff discussed moving forward in light of Johnson’s complex history— a gay man who expressed Nazi sympathies before WWII and who went on to become a leader in Mid-Century Modern architecture which his home exemplifies..." (Excerpt from above.)


2022 - article mention

Duffield, Grace. (27 April 2022). "Colored garden" named ’provocatively’ to confront New Canaan’s Glass House’s past and future [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. CTInsider news website (Connecticut). (Viewed 9 December 2023. S00656).



2022 - article mention

Duffield, Grace. (27 April 2022). "Colored garden" named ’provocatively’ to confront New Canaan’s Glass House’s past and future [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. Greenwich Time newspaper (Greenwich, CT). (Viewed 9 December 2023. S00657).

2022 - article mention

Duffield, Grace. (27 April 2022). "Colored garden" named ’provocatively’ to confront New Canaan’s Glass House’s past and future [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. The Hour newspaper (Norwalk, CT). (Viewed 9 December 2023. S00658).

2022 - article mention

Duffield, Grace. (27 April 2022). "Colored garden" named ’provocatively’ to confront New Canaan’s Glass House’s past and future [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. Middletown Press (Middletown, CT). (Viewed 9 December 2023. S00659).

2022 - article mention

Duffield, Grace. (27 April 2022). "Colored garden" named ’provocatively’ to confront New Canaan’s Glass House’s past and future [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. The Milford Mirror (Milford, CT). (Viewed 9 December 2023. S00660).

2022 - article mention

Duffield, Grace. (27 April 2022). "Colored garden" named ’provocatively’ to confront New Canaan’s Glass House’s past and future [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. The New Canaan Advertiser (New Canaan, CT). (Viewed 9 December 2023. S00661).

2022 - article mention

Duffield, Grace. (27 April 2022). "Colored garden" named ’provocatively’ to confront New Canaan’s Glass House’s past and future [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. New Haven Register (New Haven, CT). (Viewed 9 December 2023. S00662).

2022 - article mention

Duffield, Grace. (27 April 2022). "Colored garden" named ’provocatively’ to confront New Canaan’s Glass House’s past and future [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. The News-Times (Danbury, CT). (Viewed 9 December 2023. S00663).

2022 - article mention

Duffield, Grace. (27 April 2022). "Colored garden" named ’provocatively’ to confront New Canaan’s Glass House’s past and future [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. The Register Citizen (Torrington, CT). (Viewed 9 December 2023. S00664).

2022 - article mention

Duffield, Grace. (27 April 2022). "Colored garden" named ’provocatively’ to confront New Canaan’s Glass House’s past and future [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. The Ridgefield Press (Ridgefield, CT). (Viewed 9 December 2023. S00665).

2022 - article mention

Duffield, Grace. (27 April 2022). "Colored garden" named ’provocatively’ to confront New Canaan’s Glass House’s past and future [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. Shelton Herald (Shelton, CT). (Viewed 9 December 2023. S00666).

2022 - article mention

Duffield, Grace. (27 April 2022). "Colored garden" named ’provocatively’ to confront New Canaan’s Glass House’s past and future [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. Stamford Advocate (Stamford, CT). (Viewed 9 December 2023. S00667).

2022 - article mention

Duffield, Grace. (27 April 2022). "Colored garden" named ’provocatively’ to confront New Canaan’s Glass House’s past and future [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. Trumbull Times (Trumbull, CT). (Viewed 9 December 2023. S00668).

2022 - article mention

Duffield, Grace. (27 April 2022). "Colored garden" named ’provocatively’ to confront New Canaan’s Glass House’s past and future [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. Wilton Bulletin (Wilton, CT). (Viewed 9 December 2023. S00669).



2022 - article / review mention

Sellers, Meredith. (29 November 2022). Unseen landscapes at Art Alliance; "New typologies", a three artist exhibit, views classical notions with a contemporary lens [with mention of Philip Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. Philadelphia Inquirer, p. B7. (Viewed 1 December 2023. S00549).

"... [David Hartt’s video Et in Arcadia Ego] was filmed at modernist architect Philip Johnson’s famed Glass House... In addition to being a paradigm-shifting architect, Johnson was a Nazi sympathizer, an antisemite, a believer in eugenics... " (Excerpt from above.)


  • Search worldcat.org for locations, or contact area public library.



2022 - article

(24 December 2022). Philip Johnson Gay. Modernist. Nazi sympathiser. The Modernist’s guide to cocktails website. (Viewed 3 December 2023. S00570).

"... Is it ethical to enjoy a work of art, when the person who created it espoused values that are abhorrent or if they themselves behaved in a deeply unethical manner? How unethical is too unethical? ..." (Excerpt from above.)








2023 - spotlighted book chapter and mentions

Maddow, Rachel. (2023). PREQUEL: An American fight against fascism [with chapter 1: The Glass House; focus on pro-Nazism of Philip Johnson, which continues in the book], pp. 416. Crown Publishing Group. (Viewed 2 December 2023).

> Note that in Maddow’s extensive media interviews and podcasts regarding the book, she more often than not does not mention Philip Johnson, and opts for others instead.




2023 - article / spotlighted radio interview

Rachini, Mouhamad. (17 October 2023). How far-right plotters tried to introduce Nazi-inspired fascism to pre-WW II U.S [with excerpts from the interview of Rachel Maddow, presumably; with embedded radio interview of Rachel Maddow by Matt Galloway]. CBC (The Current program). (Viewed 4 December 2023. S00593).

[14.44+] Matt Galloway: How do you understand, how somebody like [Johnson], goes on to be ostensibly a respectable member of society?

Maddow: Excellent question! Yeah. How does that happen..." (Excerpt from above.)





2023 - spotlighted podcast mention

Wittes, Benjamin. (c. 9 November 2023). Rachel Maddow on her book "Prequel: An American fight against fascism" [with mention of Philip Johnson and his pro-Nazi views]. Lawfare podcast. (Viewed 3 December 2023. S00573).

[1:07:55] Rachel Maddow: "I’m trying to make John Rogge a hero in the U. S. Justice Department... I’m trying to make Leon Lewis as famous as I can possibly make him...

I work in the news business. I spend a lot of time everyday, thinking about, working on, reporting on, and explaining the doings of the worst people in America and the worst people in the world. It is also worth not letting those people be lost to history— and holding them to account too. The long tail of Philip Johnson... is a tail that should have been stepped on by a public that was better informed about their villiany..." (Excerpt from above.)



2023 - other articles

See the articles


2023 - article mention

Stevens Curl, James. (21 January 2023). Hitler’s revenge; The RIBA Journal confuses architectural history [with mention of Philip Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. The Critic magazine. (Viewed 4 December 2023. S00597).

"... Philip Johnson joined in the widespread adulation accorded to Nazi Germany after he heard Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) speak, and for a time was closely involved with some vile rabble-rousers opposed to Franklin Delano Roosevelt..." (Excerpt from above.)




2023 - article mention

Palumbo, Jacqui. (29 June 2023). Steeped in history and race, Gary Simmons’ ghostly artworks are timeless— and all too timely [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. CNN (Style section). (Viewed 2 December 2023. S00557).

"... For ’Public Enemy,’ Simmons recreated four monumental works in paint and chalk, including a trio called ’1964’... Each of the three depicts an architectural structure or design element with darker implications, such as architect Philip Johnson’s 1940s modernist masterpiece Glass House— a building which was allegedly partially influenced by Polish homes stripped down during World War II, and a reflection of Johnson’s purported Nazi affiliation..." (my underlining, excerpt from above).




2023 - article mention

Droge, Isabel. (28 July 2023). 5 Buildings Designed by Celebrated Architect Philip Johnson. The Collector website. (Viewed 27 May 2024. S01116).

"... Between 1934 and 1940, Johnson had in fact proved to be sympathetic to Fascist politics..." (Excerpt from above.)




2023 - article mention

Shesol, Jeff. (15 October 2023). Is there fascist DNA in the U.S. body politic? Rachel Maddow’s "Prequel" and Heather Cox Richardson’s ’Democracy awakening’ follow plots against America hatched by homegrown autocrats. New York Times. (Viewed 4 December 2023. S00595).

"... Nazi fetishists like Philip Johnson— later an acclaimed architect— set out in search of an American Hitler... " (Excerpt from above.)




2023 - book excerpt mention

Maddow, Rachel. (25 November 2023). The Secret Nazi Plot Inside America [book excerpt; with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. Rolling Stone magazine. (Viewed 3 December 2023. S00569).

"... That German propaganda campaign, by ground and by air, was facilitated by a cadre of American troops. There was Lawrence Dennis, proud to be known as ’the intellectual godfather of American fascism’; his mentee Philip Johnson, later a celebrated modern architect... " (Excerpt from above.)




2024 - article

Roche, Daniel. (26 January 2024). In Prequel, Rachel Maddow chronicles Philip Johnson’s fascist activity for the general public. Architect’s Newspaper. (Viewed 27 May 2024. S01117).

"... Touring Nazi-occupied Poland in 1939 with SS officers, attending a 1939 Hitler rally in Nuremberg, actively spying for the Nazis, designing a stage for the fascist radio personality Father Coughlin, and translating texts about Nazi political economy into English over a 20-year period were just a few of Philip Johnson’s so-called ’mistakes.’ ..." (Excerpt from above.)


2024 - spotlighted TV news broadcast mention

Maddow, Rachel. (12 February 2024). TV news segment mentioning Tucker Carlson, Vladimir Putin and Philip Johnson (start at 8:07) (spotlighted at top of webpage). Rachel Maddow show, MSNBC. (Viewed 4 May 2024. S01071).

Rachel Maddow: ... [Putin] claimed in this interview that it was Poland who started World War II. Poland did it! Because even though Poland had cooperated with Hitler up to a point, they stopped cooperating with Hitler when Hitler really wanted them to cooperate more. And once that happened, Hitler had no choice: he just had to invade, and by the way it was kind of doing Poland a favor...

We haven’t had someone trying to sell this line to an American audience since it happened the first time in 1939, right? With Philip Johnson’s "reporting", right? With him, we had a committed American fascist allied with the Nazis, openly routing for them, trying to sell us this bill of goods..." (Excerpt from above.)


2024 - article mention

Hawthorne, Christopher. (13 April 2024). Philip Johnson’s Brick House and its hidden boudoir, exposed [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support past]. New York Times. (Viewed 25 May 2024. S01114).

"... Then there is the question of Johnson’s politics. Scholars in recent years have devoted increasing attention to Johnson’s embrace of Fascism, which began in the 1930s after he left a curatorial post at the Museum of Modern Art and ultimately saw him accompany Nazi troops as they invaded Poland in 1939..." (Excerpt from above.)


2024 - podcast mention

Hart, Bradley W. (presenter). (11 June 2024). Episode 10 - The godfather (Lawrence Dennis) [16:40+: Nancy Beck Young mentions Philip Johnson giving Lawrence Dennis USD$5000 enabling his work]. Star-spangled Fascism Podcast. (Viewed 14 June 2024. S01385).


n. d.

undated resources

See the articles


n. d. - Wikipedia entry mention

(undated). "Glass House" by Philip Johnson entry [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. Wikipedia. (Viewer 3 December 2023).

n. d. - biographical statement mention

(undated). Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. The Glass House website. (Viewed 7 December 2023. S00613).

"... While he did not appear to maintain these attitudes lifelong, he espoused pro-Nazi and American fascist sympathies during 1934-1940, which his biographer Franz Schulze referred to as the ’inglorious detour.’ ... " (Excerpt from above.)


n. d. - Wikipedia entry mention

(undated). Philip Johnson [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. wikipedia.org. (Viewed 30 November 2023.)

n. d. - article mention

Krishna, Ujjvala. (undated). Philip Johnson: Understanding the philosophy of Philip Johnson [with mention of Johnson’s pro-Nazi support]. Rethinking The Future website. (Viewed 6 December 2023. S006 ).

"... Also, a Nazi sympathizer and a fascist, [Philip Johnson] did receive a lot of backlash for his ideologies maintaining ani-Semitic stances..." (Excerpt from above.)